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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• Tober’s First Law of Geography
All things are related, but (all things being equal) those things closer together are more related
o Distance decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
pull people in opposite directions
• Globalization and local diversity
o Globalization
actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope – greater cultural and economic interaction with others because of modern communications and technology (Example – people speak English in France; McDonald’s menu and standards are the same everywhere)
o Local diversity
the search for more ways to express unique cultural traditions and economic practices (Example – the French pass laws against speaking English; McDonald’s may add menu items in India)
• “Geography” =
“Earth” + “to write” [Greek]
• Map
2D representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it (globes are now possible, but they do not present enough detail)
• Cartography
the art and science of making maps
• Maps use legends/symbols to
(1) store reference material and (2) communicate geographic information
• History of Mapmaking
o Babylonians (2300 B.C.) – earliest surviving maps on clay tablets
o Mediterranean sailors/traders (800 B.C.) – map rock formations, islands, ocean current
o Miletus, present-day Turkey – center for geography
o Thales (580 B.C.) – apply geometry to measure land area, taught
o Anaximander – use sailors’ info to portray Earth as cylinder
o Hecateus (500 B.C.) – first geography book
o Aristotle (350 B.C.) – spherical earth from (1) matter falls to common center, (2) Earth’s circular shadow on moon during eclipse, (3) visible stars change traveling north or south; Barbarians invaded, recovered during Renaissance
o Eratosthenes (230 B.C.) – coin “geography,” accept Aristotle’s work, correctly divide Earth into five climatic regions, Alexandria head librarian, calculate Earth’s circumference within 0.5% accuracy
• Map scale
the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, or the size on the map and the actual size on Earth
• Projection
the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a lat map
o Four types of distortion
 Shape of an area
 Distance between two points
 Relative size of different areas
 Direction from one place to another
o Types of projections
(Equal-area, Conformal, and Compromise describe all)
 Azimuthal
or planar – one point – distortion around edges –
Oblique Zenithal Equidistant
air route distances
 Cylindrical
one line – world map
• Conformal
does not distort shape
allows navigators to draw straight lines – “Greenland Problem” distorts size
• Equal-area
only distortion of size is near poles – sometimes uses interruption – meridians do not merge at poles and are not perpendicular to parallels
debated, accepted everywhere except U.S., uses own metric system
Eckert IV
has less shape distortion near poles,
Goode’s Homolosine
is interrupted like a squashed orange peel
meridians are not parallel, interrupted
• Compromise
used by National Geographic
Van der Grinten
shrinks land masses
Winkel Tripel
minimizes shape distortion in polar areas
 Conical
one parallel – distortion away from region/parallel –
is equal-area, distorts shape around edges
o Land Ordinance of 1785
divide much of the U.S. into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to Western settlers
o Township
– square six miles on each side, divided into 36 1-mile sections, which are divided into 4 half-mile quarter-sections each
townships are separated by
o Base lines –
E-W lines
o Base lines
N-S lines
Principal meridians
computer software that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data using geocoding – designed by McHarg in the 1960’s
• GIS (Geographic Information System)
o Thematic layers –
individual maps containing specific features
• Remote sensing
the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from long-distance methods (balloons, birds, planes, satellites, and infrared waves) – used to study the environment, urban sprawl, and agriculture
• GPS (Global Positioning System) –
a system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth using satellites, tracking stations, and receivers – now uses latitude and longitude – useful for navigation and finding information to be entered in a GIS
• Place
a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
o Location
the position that something occupies on Earth’s surface
toponym, site , situation, mathematical location
 Four ways to identify location
• Toponym
name given to a place on Earth
• Site –
physical character of a place – climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, laitude, elevation
• Situation –
the location of a place relative to other places – helps (1) find an unfamiliar place and (2) understand its importance
o Meridian –
an arc drawn between the North and South poles that runs N-S but measures E-W – imaginary and used in grid system
o Parallel
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians – runs E-W but measures N-S
o Longitude
a numbering system that identifies each meridian measuring E-W of the prime meridian
o Prime meridian –
the meridian that passes the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England (0°)
o Latitude –
the numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel measuring N-S of the equator (0°) The distance between each degree is about 69 miles.
o Degrees calculated using a point, the center of the earth, and a point on
degree = __ minutes
o Greenwich Mean Time –
the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian
o International Date Line –
An arc following 180° longitude, although it deviates to avoid dividing land areas. East, toward America, moves back one day, and West, toward Asia, moves ahead
• Regional studies – or cultural landscape studies – or Pattison’s area-analysis tradition
an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
• Region –
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
o Vernacular
perceptual – ex. The “South” – changes and is “fuzzy”
or uniform – ex. “Bible Belt” or “Wheat Belt” or Tibet (not actually a state) - relatively uniform: surveys, not political lines
o Functional
or nodal – see distance decay – ex. Whitney Bank or Times Picayune or Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (NO, San Fran)
Spatial interaction
the movement of people, goods, and ideas within and among regions
o Geographical scale
(see map scale above) – conceptual hierarchy of spaces, from small to large, that reflects actual levels of organization in the real world (neighborhood, urban area, metropolitan area, region; OR watershed, ecosystem, landscape, biome – one can affect other parts)
o Space –
the physical gap or interval between two objects
 Geographers study regular distributions of objects across space
 Spatial perspective
intellectual framework that looks at the earth in terms of how and why a phenomenon is where it is and the relationships between various places (how and why for McDonald’s)
o Connections –
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
“where” – (AP Exam: Give examples)
• Place
unique characteristics
o Physical – landforms, climate, soils, flora, fauna, water
o Human – religion, languages, population, settlement, economics
links of transportation and communication
areas with shared characteristics (physical and human)
• Geographical scale
conceptual hierarchy of spaces, from small to large (size of a region), that reflects actual levels of organization in the real world
the body of customary beliefs, material traits (ex. tools, clothes, toys like cobbler, architecture like garages instead of porches), and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people; defines why each region is distinctive
“cultus” = “to care for”
o “Culture” = Latin
• Cultural ecology
the geographic study of human-environment relationships
 Imitation (like Britney Spears)
 Instruction (pill commercials, P-Rock’s dad, Sex Ed.)
• U.S.A. lacks instruction and sharing of culture
 Example
Culture is Transferred by three methods:
cultural ecology
– the geographic study of human-environment relationships
o Environmental determinism
an approach focusing on how the physical environment causes social development
(early 1800s)– emphasize using scientific method to discover general laws, concentrate on
( late 1800s) claim that geography and environmental determinism are one and the same
(early 1900s) – “prove” racism; argue climate is major determinant of civilization and Europeans are superior because of temperate climate
o Possibilism
an approach that states the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment
substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use – THEY CHANGE
Climate, vegetation, soil, landforms
o Physical factors that interest human geographers:
the long-term average weather condition at a particular location
Earth’s plant life
: forest, savanna, grassland, desert
• Four major biomes:
 SOIL –
the material that forms on Earth’s surface; the thin interface between the air and rocks that contains nutrients necessary for growth of plants
Earth’s surface features; can vary from relatively flat to mountainous.
o Geomorphology
helps to explain the distribution of people and the choice of economic activities at different locations.
pieces of land that are created by draining water from an area
Barrier Islands
large sandbars that shield the mainland from flooding and storm damage – are used for homes and recreational facilities. Causing more erosion.
 Lake Okeechobee to Everglade National Park
wetlands destroyed; irrigation from marsh for citrus industry
 Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee –
drained for water and land; polluted water from cattle flow into lake and park
• Globalization
a force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope
transnational corporations –
multinational corporations that conduct research, operate factories, and sell products in many countries away from where their headquarters and principal shareholders are located
chronological, ask when and why, cannot travel through time; must INTERPRET artifacts (study of history changes
spatially, ask where and why, able to travel to places to do field work.
the arrangement of a feature in space
the frequency with which something occurs in space (AMOUNT/AREA)
arithmetic density
the total number of objects in an area
• Physiological density
the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
agricultural density
the number of farmers per unit area of farmland
the extent of a feature’s spread over space
closer together; more concentrated
– relatively far apart
the geometric arrangement of objects in space
 Often grid-like like townships and blocks
space-time compression
the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place
distance decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
the place from which an innovation originates, or a node and diffuses from there to other places – someone has to be willing to try and maintain the new idea
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through PHYSICAL MOVEMENT of people from one place to another – can skip places (like UPS shipping)
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process – IDEA TAKES OVER
hierarchial diffusion
the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places – from just one person/group/place
o Example: hip-hop and rap from poor blacks
contagious diffusion
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population – all at once
stimulus diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from the globalization of the economy
U.S., Europe, Japan, Australia – wealthy, powerful, controls media and technology
Less developed, poor, dependent on core countries for education, technology, media, and militia
brazil video
“unfair” – some need more education and technology to keep up with transnational corporations – free enterprise versus socialism/nationalizing
o (1) More people are alive at this time – about 6.75 billion – than at any point in Earth’s long history.
o (2) The world’s population increased at a faster rate during the second half of the twentieth century than ever before in history.
o (3) Virtually all the global population growth is concentrated in LDCs.
population study is important because...
the scientific study of population characteristics (spatial distribution, by age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, and so on)
gather statistics (math only) by fieldwork.
 Associate’s degree or Bachelor’s
population geographers
analyze and make recommendations
 Doctorate or Master’s (more experience than demographer)
 Usually pick “low” options to save money, time, resources
 Never wrong (only show possibilities); only recommend on past information, while things change and make things risky
East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe
Maybe East North America
• Two-thirds of world population are in
south asia
 One-fifth; 1.2 billion
 India, 986 million
east asia
 One-fifth; 1.5 billion
 China: 1.254 billion
southeast asia
 500 million
 Indonesia, 206 million
• 13,677 islands, including Java, the world’s 4th most populous country
• Muslim – largest religion in the world
western europe
 One-ninth
 Old people
50% , 10%
• More than _% of the world’s total population is clustered in the three Asian centers, less than _% of earth’s land area.
the portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
the areas of Earth that humans consider too harsh for occupancy
cold, wet, dry, high
• 4 types of land humans avoid:
population density
a.k.a. arithmetic density, the total number of people divided by total land area
physiological density
the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
agricultural density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land.
total population; concerned with society as a whole rather than a refined look at particular individuals or groups
frequency of occurrence of an event
unifies a rate for a specific population group unified by a characteristic; more useful and accurate
crude death rate
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude birth rate
the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society.
•  30 per 1000 – HIGH
o China – one-child family planning policy
o Indonesia – birth control, then Muslim
o Philippines – Marcos dictator, then Catholic
o India – Gandhi’s daughter’s broken promise
government policy to help stop high CBR
natural increase rate
the percentage by which a population grows in a year.
 % CBR – % CDR
– a country’s growth rate excludes migration.
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
total fertility rate
the average number of children born to each woman throughout her child-bearing years (roughly ages 14 through 49)
infant mortality rate
the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births
life expectancy
at birth measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels (that vary with location; Western Europe expects late seventies, whereas sub-Saharan African countries expects forties)
demographic transition
the similar process of change in a society’s population among countries
agricultural revolution
DT:  Low growth until 1750
industrial revolution
DT: High growth from 1750 to 1880,
medical revolution and sanitation
DT: Moderate growth from 1880 to the early 1970s
low birth and low death, presently
 Low growth from the early 1970s to the present.
ZERO population growth
population pyramid
visual representation (bar graph) that displays a country’s population by age and gender groups; influenced by the country’s demographic transition.
dependency ratio
simple measure of # people who are too young/old to work that every 100 people in productive years (15 to 70) must support
sex ratio
# males per 100 females in population.
periodic gathering of statistical data (usually population)
malthus theory of population increase
population growing more rapidly than Earth’s food supply because population increases geometrically, whereas food supply increases arithmetically.
a DEMOGRAPHER more than 200 years ago
S curve
o Visual representation of population size consistent with and supportable by an exploitable resource base
homeostatic plateau
when population equals carrying capacity of occupied area
epidemiologic transition
focuses on the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect larger numbers of people.
pestilence and famine
b. Stage 1 & 2 of Malthus theory
disease that occurs over wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
degenerative and human-created diseases
stage 3 &4
reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases
stage 5
infectious diseased microbes have continuously changed by developing resistance to drugs, insecticides, antibiotics, and genetic engineering (used too much).
many diseases such as tuberculosis are more prevalent in poor areas because the long expensive treatment poses a significant economic burden.
improved travel
people carry diseases with them and are exposed to the diseases of others.
evolution, poverty, improved travel
three reasons why there could be a reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases (stage 5)