• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Job analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for the job by collecting the following types of information: work activities; human behaviors; machines, tools, equipment, and work aids; performance standards; job context; and human requirements.
Job Description
A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities – one product of a job analysis.
Job specification
A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on – another product of a job analysis.
Recruitment and Selection
Job descriptions and job specifications are formed from the information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.
The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each job is determined from the information gathered from a job analysis.
Performance Appraisal
Managers use job analysis to determine a job’s specific activities and performance standards.
Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job’s required activities and skills.
Discovering Unassigned Duties
Job analysis can help reveal unassigned duties.
EEO Compliance
The U.S. Federal Agencies’ Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that job analysis is a crucial step in validating all major personnel activities.
List the 6 steps of job analysis.
1.Decide how the information will be used.

2.Review relevant background information.

3.Select representative positions to analyze.

4.Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.

5. Verify the job analysis information with job incumbents and supervisors.

6.Develop a job description and job specification from the information.
List the 6 methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
1.The Interview
4.Participant Diary / Logs
5.Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
6.Using Multiple Sources of Information
What are the pros/ cons of using an interview?
simple, quick, and more comprehensive

List some Interview guidelines
a) the job analyst and supervisor should identify the workers who know the job best and would be objective
b) establish a rapport with the interviewee
c) follow a structured guide or checklist
d) ask worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence
e) review and verify the data.
Pros/ Cons of obervation
good for manual labor jobs that involve observable work.

Employees change the way that they work if they know they're being watched.
Pros/ Cons of questionnaires
quick, efficient

Development can be expensive and time consuming.
Information about employee logs/ diaries
The employee records every activity he/she engages in, in a diary or log along with the amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the job. Employees may try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others.
What is a Position Analysis Questionnaire
(PAQ) - a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, on five basic activities:
a) having decision-making/ communication/social responsibilities
b) performing skilled activities
c) being physically active
d) operating vehicles/ equipment
e) processing information
What is a department of labor procedure?
a standardized method for rating, classifying, and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things.

Functional job analysis
1) rates a job on data; people; things; the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task; and mathematical ability required to perform the task; and 2) identifies performance standards and training requirements.
List the 5 major components that should be included in a job description.
A. Job Identification – contains the job title, the FLSA status, date, and possible space to indicate who approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s title, salary and/or pay scale.

B. Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or activities.

C. Relationships – occasionally a relationships statement is included. It shows the jobholders’ relationships with others inside and outside the organization.

D. Responsibilities and Duties – The Department of Labor’s Dictionary of Occupational Titles can be used for itemizing the job’s duties and responsibilities.

E.Standards of Performance and Working Conditions – states the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.
What do you need to consider when writing job specifications for untrained employees?
qualities such as physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or being trained to perform on the job.
What do you need to consider when writing job specifications for trained employees?
traits like length of previous service, quality of relevant training, and previous job performance.
What is a job specification by judgment?
A method of writing a job specification that is based on educated guesses or judgments, or from competencies listed in web-based job description websites
What are Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis
determine statistically the relationship between 1) some predictor or human trait such as height, intelligence, or finger dexterity, and 2) some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.
What are the five steps in the job specifications by statistical analysis process?
a) analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance
b) select personal traits like finger dexterity that you believe should predict successful performance
c) test candidates for these traits
d) measure these candidates’ subsequent job performance
e) statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait and job performance.
Job enlargement
Job enlargement involves assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.
Job Rotation
Job rotation is systematically moving workers from one job to another.
Job enrichment
Job enrichment involves redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
Where did today's notion of a "job" come from?
A “job” as we know it today is largely an outgrowth of the industrial revolution’s emphasis on efficiency.
De -jobbing
De-jobbing refers to broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions.
What are competencies?
Competencies are defined as demonstrable characteristics of the person that enable performance. They are observable and measurable.
Why use competency analysis?
First, traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high performance work system is the goal. Second, describing the job in terms of skills, knowledge and competencies needed is more strategic. Finally, measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management system.
Examples of competencies
These can include general competencies (such as reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning), leadership competencies (leadership, strategic thinking, teaching others) and technical competencies (specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs).
Comparing traditional versus competency-based job analysis`
competency based analysis is more measurable, where some of the job’s essential duties and responsibilities are expressed as competencies.
Forecasting Personnel Needs
Forecast revenues, and then estimate the size of the staff required to achieve this sales volume.
Trend Analysis
studying a firm’s employment levels over a period of years to predict future needs.
Ratio Analysis
making forecasts based on the ratio between (1) some causal factor, like sales volume, and (2) number of employees required, like number of salespeople.
The Scatter Plot
shows graphically how two variables (such as a measure of business activity and a firm’s staffing levels) are related.
Using Computers to Forecast Personnel Requirements
The use of software programs can enable employers to quickly translate projected productivity and sales levels into forecasts of personnel needs, while estimating how personnel requirements will be affected by various productivity and sales levels.
Forecasting the supply of inside candidates: manual systems
Simple manual devices can be used to keep inventories and development records to compile qualifications information on each employee.
Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates: Personnel replacement charts
Personnel replacement charts show the present performance and promotability for each position’s potential replacement. Position replacement cards can also be created for each position to show possible replacements as well as their present performance, promotion potential, and training.
Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates: Computerized Information Systems
Used to track the qualifications of hundreds or thousands of employees. The system can provide managers with a listing of candidates with specified qualifications after scanning the database.
Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates: The Matter of Privacy
Employers must balance an individual’s right to privacy while making HR information legitimately available to those in the firm who need it.
Forecasting the Supply of Outside Candidates
This may involve considering general economic conditions and the expected rate of unemployment
Centralized recruiting structure
Bringing all recruiting efforts to one location.

Makes it easier to apply company policies, reduces duplication, makes it easier to spread the cost of new technologies over more departments, and builds a team of recruitment experts, and makes it easier to assess the effectiveness of the function.
Recruitment - Line and Staff Cooperation
Since the recruiting HR manager is seldom responsible for supervising the performance for the vacant position, he/she must communicate with the supervisor to find out exactly what the job entails.
Measuring Recruiting Effectiveness
Assessing the quality of each recruitment source will help HR managers to determine where the most cost effective recruiting sources are and thus determine where they want to direct their recruiting dollars, Prescreening selection devices shown in table 5-1 are helpful tools to get quick assessments on whether applicants are qualified
The Recruiting Yield Pyramid
used by some employers to calculate the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees`
Rehiring - pros/ cons
they are known quantities and are already familiar with the

On the other side, former employees may return with negative attitudes, and also sends a message to current employees that the way to get ahead is to leave and come back.
Succession Planning
The process of ensuring a suitable supply of successors for senior or key jobs
Labor markets
External supply pool from which organizations recruit employees.
Labor market classifications
1.Geographic: local, regional, national
2. Global
3.Industry and Occupational: professional and business services, hospitality, construction, HR managers (occupational), engineers (occupational), etc.
4.Educational and Technical: by education level or technical skills
Labor force population
includes all individuals available if all methods are used.
Applicant population
a subset of the Labor force population and includes all individuals available if a certain method is used
Applicant pool level
includes all individuals actually evaluated for hiring.
Constructing an advertisement
Many experienced advertisers use a four-point guide called AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) to construct their ads.
Employment Advertising’s Effectiveness
recent studies show that it pays for employers to formulate marketing campaigns aimed at making themselves more attractive to potential recruits.
When putting together an ad, which media should be used?
The best medium should be selected based on the positions for which you are recruiting.
Public and Nonprofit Employment Agencies
Every state has a public, state-run employment service agency supported by the Department of Labor, in part through grants and other assistance, such as a nationwide computerized job bank. Many professional and technical societies, and public welfare agencies have units that try to help their members or people in special categories find jobs.
Private Employment Agencies
Private Agencies charge fees for each applicant they place. Typically, market conditions determine whether the candidate or employer pays the fee.
Pros/ cons of Temp Agencies and Alternative Staffing
increases in overall productivity
time and expenses saved by not having to recruit, train, and document new employees
fees paid to agency and individuals’ psychological reference to their place of employment.
Offshoring/Outsourcing White Collar and Other Jobs
Hiring workers abroad is becoming more and more common. There are several specific issues that the HR manager should keep in mind when considering this option.
Pros/ Cons of using a headhunter/ recruiter
Save time

Might try to persuade you to hire someone you don't want.
Guidelines for using a headhunter
Make sure the firm is capable, meet the individual who will handle your assignment, and ask how much the firm charges.
On Demand Recruiting Services (ODRS)
This service provides short-term specialized recruiting to support specific projects without the expense of retaining traditional search firms.
Recruiting Goals
1) to determine whether a candidate is worthy of further consideration
2) to attract good candidates.
a recruiting approach that can be a win-win situation for the employer and the student. For employers, interns can make useful contributions while being evaluated for possible full-time employment. For students, they are able to hone business skills, check out potential employers, and learn more about their likes and dislikes.
Recruiting via the Internet
More and more people are going online to look for jobs. This can be a cost effective method of finding qualified candidates.
Applicant Tracking
Web based ads often produce so many applicants that many firms must use applicant tracking software
Using an E-Recruiting Applications Tracking ASP
Applications service providers, such as Recruitsoft.com, are strategically partnering with HR departments of many companies to streamline the recruiting process.
Designing Effective Internet Recruiting Programs
It is a mistake to take newspaper ads and transpose them to the Web. Instead, when posting on job sites such as Monster.com, use compelling keywords which provide good reasons why candidates would want to work for your company.
Recruiting Single Parents
Formulating an intelligent program for attracting single parents should begin with understanding the considerable problems they often encounter in balancing work and family life.
Recruiting Older Workers
Many employers are encouraging retirement-age employees not to leave, or are actively recruiting employees who are at or beyond retirement age by making their companies an attractive place in which older workers can work.
Recruiting Minorities and Women
requires employers to tailor their way of thinking and to design HR practices that make their firms attractive to them
The Federal Personal Responsibility and Welfare Reconciliation Act of 1996 prompted many employers to implement programs to attract and assimilate former welfare recipients.
Recruiting The Disabled
Employers can do several things to tap into this huge potential workforce. The Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy offers several programs, and all states have local agencies that provide placement services and other recruitment and training tools.
Purpose of Applications Forms
Application forms are a good way to quickly collect verifiable and fairly accurate historical data from the candidate.
Alternative Dispute Resolution
While the EEOC generally opposes the idea, more employers are requiring applicants to sign mandatory alternative dispute resolution forms as a part of the application process.
Using Application Forms to Predict Job Performance
Some firms use application forms to predict which candidates will be successful and which will not by conducting statistical studies to find the relationship between (1) responses on the application form and (2) measures of success on the job.
List three reasons why selecting the correct applicant for a job is important.
1) employees with the right skills and attributes will perform more effectively
2) the cost of making a wrong hire can become exorbitant considering the time and money invested in the selection and training process
3) the legal implications of incompetent or negligent hiring.
Negligent hiring
when an employer hires an employee with a criminal background without proper safeguards.
Criterion Validity
shows that scores on the test (predictors) are related to job performance.
Content Validity
shows that the test contains a fair sample of the tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question.
List the five steps for validating a test
1.Analyze the Job and write job descriptions and job specifications.

2.Choose the Tests that measure the attributes (predictors) important for job success.

3.Administer the Test selected to old or new employees for concurrent and predictive validation.

4. Relate Test Scores and Criteria through a correlation analysis, which shows the degree of statistical relationship between (1) scores on the test and (2) job performance.

5.Cross-validate and Revalidate by performing steps 3 and 4 on a new sample of employees.
Guidelines for testing
1) use tests as supplements; 2) validate the tests
3) analyze all your current hiring and promotion standards
4) keep accurate records
5) begin your validation program now
6) use a certified psychologist
7) test conditions are important
Equal Employment Opportunity Aspects of Testing
Employers must be able to prove (1) that their tests are related to success or failure on the job (validity) and (2) that their tests don’t unfairly discriminate against minority or nonminority subgroups.
Alternatives when the EEOC has problems with the test
Employers have three alternatives: choose an alternative selection procedure; show that the test is valid; or monitor the selection test to see if it has disparate impact.
Gender issues in testing
gender socialization influences men's and women's test results, for example it can influence the occupational interests for which candidates express a preference.
Test Takers Individual Rights and Test Security
Test takers have certain rights to privacy and information under the American Psychological Association’s (APA) standard for educational and psychological tests.
research insight
One study found that students were more favorable when they felt the employer had the right to obtain information with a particular technique, and when the procedure was widely used in the industry.`
Using Tests at Work
Various types of tests are widely used by employers today.
Tests of Cognitive Abilities
Cognitive tests include tests of general reasoning ability (intelligence) and tests of specific mental abilities like memory and inductive reasoning.
Intelligence Tests
tests of general intellectual abilities ranging from memory, vocabulary, and verbal fluency to numerical ability.
Specific Cognitive Abilities (aptitude) tests
includes inductive and deductive reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory, and numerical ability.
Tests of Motor and Physical Abilities
Employers may use various tests to measure such motor abilities as finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and reaction time. They may also want to measure such physical abilities as static strength, dynamic strength, body coordination and stamina.
Measuring Personality and Interests
can be used to assess personal characteristics as attitude, motivation, and temperament.
The "Big Five"
Industrial psychologists emphasize five personality dimensions as they apply to personnel testing: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
Interest Inventories
compares one’s interests with those of people in various occupations.
Achievement Tests
measure what a person has learned.
Web-based Testing
increasingly used for testing and screening applicants
Rationale for Work Sampling
Work sampling technique measures how a candidate actually performs some of the job’s basic tasks making it harder for applicants to fake answers. This method tends to be fairer and exhibit better validity than test designed to predict performance.
Developing a Work Sampling Procedure
The basic procedure is to choose several tasks crucial to performing the job in question and to test applicants on those identified tasks.
Management Assessment Centers
A two-to-three-day simulation in which 10 to 12 candidates perform realistic management tasks, under the observation of experts who appraise each candidate’s potential.
Video-Based Situational Testing
typically presents the candidate with several scenarios, each followed by a multiple-choice question.
The Miniature Job Training and Evaluation Approach
involves training candidates to perform a sample of job tasks, and evaluating their performance.
Background Investigations and Reference Checks
Most employers check and verify an applicant’s background information and references, including driving record, check for criminal charges or convictions, and credit check.
Effectiveness of background checks
Background checks tend to be an inexpensive and straightforward way to verify factual information about the applicant. But, they can backfire. Laws (like the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970) increase the likelihood that rejected applicants will have access to the background information.
Making Background Checks More Useful
Employers should: include on their application forms a statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check; rely more on telephone references than written ones; and use local investigation firms
Background Information checks
Various federal and state laws govern how employers acquire and use applicants' and employees' background information. Compliance involves four steps: 1) Disclosure and authorization; 2) Certification; 3) Providing copies of the reports; and 4) Notice after adverse action.
a device that measures physiological changes like increased perspiration. Current law prevents most employers engaged in interstate commerce from using tests for preemployment screening or during the course of employment.
Paper-and-Pencil Tests
Paper-and-pencil honesty tests are psychological tests designed to predict job applicants’ proneness to dishonesty and other forms of counter-productive behavior.
What Employers Can Do for honesty testing
ask blunt questions; listen, rather than talk; ask for a credit check; check all references; consider paper-and-pencil honesty tests and psychological tests as a part of your honesty-screening program; test for drugs; establish a search-and-seizure policy; and conduct searches.
(handwriting analysis) assumes that handwriting reflects basic
personality tests.
Physical Examination
Once an offer is made and the person is hired, a
medical exam is usually the next step in the selection process.
Substance Abuse Screening
Because drug abuse is a serious problem for
employers, it is common practice for most employers to conduct drug screening
just before employees are formally hired.