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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Roots anchor plants, support upright growth, serve as a site of symbiotic relationship, absorb water and minerals and store nutrients.

Angiosperms have ___ types of roots.

Angiosperms have TWO types of roots.


Flowering plant

Tap/Primary Root

Roots arise as a continuation of the embryonic radicle tissue and persist into maturity.

Fibrous/Adventitious Root

In plants of this type, the primary root originates from the radicle, weakens prior to maturity and new adventitious roots arise from stem tissue.

True or False: Adventitious roots originate from the stem but always emerge from a node.

False: Adventitious roots originate from the stem and DO NOT have to emerge from a node.

Root Cap

Covers tip of the root and provides protection as the root drives into the soil. The outer cells are always wearing away and new cells are always added to the inner portion.

The root cap is produced by what?

Apical meristem

Root Apical Meristem

Divide rapidly to form new stems

What are the two functions of root apical meristem cells?

1: Some lay toward the root cap to replace worn cells

2: Some lay away from the root cap, elongate and then mature into more specialized tissues

Region/Zone of Elongation

Cells previously produced by the root apical meristem undergo rapid elongation

Root growth is the result of 2 processes. What are they?

1. New production of cells through the apical meristem

2. Elongation of new cells

In the region of elongation behind the meristem, there are 3 types of tissue that can be found. Name them.

1. Protoderm

2. Procambium

3. Ground Meristem


Laid toward exterior of root and become root dermal tissue (usually epidermis cells)


Located in central part of the root and mature to become vascular tissue

Ground Meristem

Located between the protoderm and procambium that mature to become cortex tissue (usually parenchyma)

Region of Differentiation (Region of Maturation)

Here, the root becomes thicker and secondary or lateral roots are initiated. The protoderm, procambium and ground meristem cells undergo differentiation into specialized cells. Root hairs also form here.

Root Epidermis

One-cell thick layer of cells surrounding the root.

Remember: NO CUTIN (WAX) COATING UNLIKE SHOOT! This is because roots do not need to be permeable to moisture!


Cells in the epidermis comprise the cortex. The cortex consists of parenchyma cells with numerous intercellular spaces through which water can move.


Innermost cells of the cortex

The Casparian Strip

Thick band of suberin that closes up the intercellular space between cells.

What are the "Big 3" in terms of the Cortex?

1. Allows diffusion of water, minerals and oxygen from root hairs inwards

2. Stores food reserves (especially starch)

3. Endodermis, with the aid of Casparian strips, facilitate the regulated movement of water from cortex to xylem

Vascular Cylinder (Stele)

Begins just inside the endodermis

Pericycle Cells

A set of cells in the vascular cylinder. They retain the ability to divide and produce new cells and are the source of lateral roots.

What are the two sets of cells found in a vascular cylinder?

1. Pericycle Cells

2. Xylem and Phloem

Xylem and Phloem in Dicot Root

Xylem is in the center of the root and has an X shape. Not all dicots have the xylem in an obvious X shape, in some cases it looks more round.

Tip - Xs have two lines, and the root "di" means two.

Xylem and Phloem in Monocot Root

Xylem is in a ring surrounded by phloem with pith in very middle.

Apical meristem is located at ___ of the growing shoot and is the site of new ___ division.

Apical meristem is located at TIP of the growing shoot and is the site of new CELL division.

Herbaceous plants

Aboveground plant parts die back to the soil at the end of the growing season.

Do herbaceous stems thicken much?

Herbaceous stems do not thicken much and rely on branching to grow laterally.

What does growth in diameter depend on?

Continued growth in diameter (like a tree) requires an active lateral meristem called the cambium - located between xylem and phloem.


Provides growth in diameter and is located between the xylem and phloem.

Perennial herbaceous plants store nutrients in the ___ for the next season’s growth. Then in the spring, new shoots emerge from ___.

Perennial herbaceous plants store nutrients in the ROOTS for the next season’s growth. Then in the spring, new shoots emerge from NODES.

What are the three components of vascular bundles going from the outside to the inside?

1. Phloem

2. Cambium

3. Xylem

Somana with guard cells are found in the epidermis. What is their function?

Their function is to allow gases in and out of the stem.


The pith ocupies central part of the stem and is composed of thin-walled parenchyma cells with larger intercellular spaces than those found in the cortex

True or False: Cambium is in dicot stems and is active for a while and produces some xylem and phloem which gives the sunflower its larger diameter stem. It is not continually active because the sunflower dies in the winter.


True or False: Tissues in monocots are completely different than those found in dicots.

False: Tissues in monocots are virtually the same as those found in dicots.

What is the main difference between tissues in monocots and dicots?

The main difference is that in monocots, the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem and NOT oriented in a ring like dicots. Tend to be more concentrated towards the outside (see picture below).

Complete the table

Complete the table

In monocot vascular bundles, cambium and secondary growth are ____.

In monocot vascular bundles, cambium and secondary growth are NON-EXISTENT.

Bundle Sheath

Layer of parenchyma cells outside of the vascular bundle