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55 Cards in this Set

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Angiosperms are composed of compressed stems with ___ nodes and ___ internodes.

Angiosperms are composed of compressed stems with 4 nodes and 3 internodes.


Stalk of solitary flower or of the stalk of a cluster of flowers.


The stalks of individual flowers when flowers occur in clusters.


Region of tissue above the peduncle that gives rise to whorls/spirals of modified leaves.


Leaf-like appendages and always lack sporangia. Usually green and photosynthetic.


Together, sepals form the calyx (second ring of floral parts). Comprised of modified leaves called sepals. They are photosynthetic.


Leaf-like appendages lacking sporangia. Attract pollinators through bright colors and patterns. They can be fragrant and exude nectar.


Together, petals form the corolla (first ring of floral parts).


Make up the third whorl of appendages extending from the receptacle. They bear sporangia and produce spores. It consists of a stalk-like filament with a lobed anther at the top.

Gametophyte (pollen grain)

Form when microspores undergo a single mitotic cell division forming two cells within the original microspore.

Carpel (pistil) and its regions

Modified leaf containing internal protected megasporangia. Contains three regions: Stigma, Style and Ovary


Forms base of carpel - hollow. Swollen region forming the base of the carpel.


Elongated and supports the stigma. Length varies from species to species. Generally, plants pollinated by wind have long styles. Others have short styles or lack them. It elevates the stigma and serves as a pollen tube conduit.


Found at terminal end of the carpel and traps pollen. Specialized for catching pollen and promoting germination of pollen plants of the same species.

Tube Nucleus

During germination of the pollen grain, the tube nucleus migrates into growing end of the tube and stays there.

Generative Cell

Becomes active and divides by mitosis to form two sperm cells that enter the pollen tube and descend following the tube nucleus.


Cavities of the ovary.


Ovules are attached to the ovary wall by this stalk like structure.


Attached by funiculus to the tissue filling the center of the ovary. Found inside locules.

Mother cell

Surrounded by the megasporangium (nucellus) which is surrounded by integuments.


Grow together enclosing the megasporangium and leaving only a small opening (micropyle) into the ovule.


Shorty chunk of stem where four different kinds of modified leaves can emerge from its nodes:

Flowers have ___ nodes.

4 nodes

Rank the four nodes of receptacle from greatest to lowest (starting at the base of the receptacle).

4th node: Calyx - base

3rd node: Corolla

2nd node: Androecium (men's house)

1st node: Gynoecium (women's house) - tip

Why are the leaves/components of the receptacle modified?

They are all modified leaves because they are specialized for sexual reproduction.


The nodes where the modified leaves are attached. Called whorls because two or more of these leaves are attached radially around the node.

Monocots have how many modified leaves attached at each node?


Dicots have how many modified leaves attached at each node?



Form when sepals and petals are showy and indistinguishable.


Collective name for the calyx and corolla. Some flowers lack this (ex: corn) because they are wind pollinated and have no need to attract pollinators.


Composed of modified leaves called stamens. MALE.

Two components of stamens



Filament (long stalk)

Male component of Androecium. Lifts the anther into a position where it can release pollen grains into/onto the pollinator. Has a plumbing function because it connects anther to the vascular system so it can receive water and nutrients.

Anther (4 sacs with pollen grains)

Male component of Androecium. Contains microsporangia and microspore mother cells where meiosis occurs. Meiosis leads to formation of male gametes (sperm) that will be packaged in a pollen grain.


Female part composed of carpels.


Carpels fused into compound carpel

Three components of carpel

Stigma: Tip on the end of structure.

Style: A supportive stalk.

Ovary: Swollen base.

____ of mother cells leads to formation of female gametes (eggs).

Meiosis of mother cells leads to formation of female gametes (eggs).


Flowers that have the other flower parts attached ABOVE the ovary.


Flowers that have an ovary that is surrounded by the fused bases of flower parts (calyx, corolla, androecium) that surrounds the ovary.


Flowers that have the other flower parts attached BELOW the ovary.

A flower that has a calyx, corolla, androecium AND gynoecium is a “__” flower.

A flower that has a calyx, corolla, androecium AND gynoecium is a “complete” flower.

Perfect, Bisexual or Hermaphroditic

Flower with both androecium and gynoecium (male and female parts). Can self-pollinate.


In some species the anther matures and pollen is shed, and the stigma is receptive, BEFORE the flower even opens. It is common in self-pollinating agricultural crops.

Why is self-pollination encouraged?

Encouraged because it is tough for pollen from another flower to get to the stigma with a closed flower before pollen from the flower’s own anther gets there first.


Pollen is shed before the stigma is receptive.


Stigma is receptive prior to pollen shed.


Stigma and style recognize pollen produced by the same plant and thwart germination or pollen tube growth of these pollen (thereby avoiding self pollination).

Incomplete flowers

Only produce male or female parts.

Staminate flowers

Flowers with only androecium (male).

Pistillate flowers

Flowers with only gynoecium (female).

In order to avoid self pollination, some plants have only ___ or ___ flowers.

In order to avoid self pollination, some plants have only staminate or pistillate flowers.


Single-sex plant (always either staminate or pistillate)


Plant that contains both sexes, whether perfect or imperfect.

True or False:Staminate plants divert all of their stored energy to their rhizomes and don’t have fruits (like pistillate plants do) into which energy is wasted. Extra energy stored in rhizomes results in greater shoot production. Ex: Asparagus.