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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cell Wall

A rigid membrane that contains cellulose (a carbohydrate that is indigestible for humans). The cell wall is the outer covering of the cell.

True or False: Cell Walls are only found in plant cells


Cell Membrane

A flexible membrane made up of layers of protein and lipid (fats and oils).

The cell membrane is semi-permeable. What does this mean?

The cell membrane is semi-permeable (it allows select compounds in and out, but not others). If the cell were like a bicycle tire, the cell wall would be the thick, protective outer tire tread part and the cell membrane would be the inner tube part.


An organelle that contains chlorophyll.

Where is light captured in the plant cell, causing the first step in photosynthesis?

In the chloroplast


An organelle where stored sugars are burned to produce forms of energy that the plant can use for growth. All cells have many mitochondria.

What is the technical name for the "cell's power plant?"



An organelle that contains the chromosomes and genetic information.


Contain the genetic code that is carried within each cell and that directs which chemical reactions are turned on and off in the cell. Chromosomes are also the hereditary material passed on to new cells and to subsequent generations. Each cell has one nucleus.


An organelle containing fluids including stored chemical energy like starch and waste products. The vacuole takes up much of the cell volume and gives shape to the cell.


The fluid inside the cell membrane in which the organelles and other plant cell parts are suspended.

Middle Lamella

A material containing pectin that forms between cells and that cements the cell wall of one cell to the cell wall of an adjacent cell.


Group of cells that share a function.

Dermal Tissue

Located on outside of the plant and provide protection for the plant cells they surround.

Dermal tissue cells contain cell walls that are ___ to protect from extreme conditions.

Dermal tissue cells contain cell walls that are THICK to protect from extreme conditions.

Dermis cells in the shoot contain ___.

Dermis cells in the shoot contain cutin.

What is a key difference between dermis cells in the shoot and dermis cells in the root?

Dermis cells in the shoot contain cutin while those in the root do not.


Waxy polymer that coats the cell wall. It limits atmospheric water loss (don’t usually exist in roots because roots are less prone to dehydration).


Outermost layer of cells that is usually one cell thick with few chloroplasts in the cells.

Guard cells

Open to form a stomata (hole) through which gases can move into and out of the deeper cell layers in the leaf.


Hairs in the epidermis that extend out from the plant.

True or False: Root has dermal tissue with epidermis cells but there is NO CUTIN, GUARD CELLS OR TRICHOMES PRESENT!


Cortex Tissue

Found just inside the epidermis and extends toward the interior of the stem and root.


Some plants (not all) contain cortex tissue in the center of the stem

What is the main function of cortex cells?

To provide support for stems.

4 Types of Dermal Tissues/Cells

1. Epidermis

2. Root Hair

3. Trichomes

4. Guard Cells


3 Types of Cortex Tissues/Cells

1. Parenchyma (alive)

2. Collenchyma (alive)

3. Sclerenchyma (dead)

8 Types of Vascular Tissues/Cells

1. Vessel Elements

2. Tracheids

3. Xylem Fibers

4. Xylem Parenchyma

5. Sieve Tube Member

6. Companion Cell

7. Phloem Fibers

8. Phloem Parenchyma


Tissue located inside the epidermis. It is the site of most photosynthesis reactions in the leaf.


Most common cortex cell, can divide to heal wounds and initiate adventitious root growth. It is also a storage for nutrients and the site for photosynthesis.


Thickened (yet flexible) walls for boosted strength. The cells connect together to form strands that provide support for young tissues (like strands on celery) and they can respond to external stimuli such as wind.


Contains a primary and secondary wall and come in two types (fibers and sclerids)

Primary cell wall

On outside of cell and is rich in cellulose

Secondary cell wall

Forms inside the primary cell wall after the cell has reached its final size

High ___ concentration that gives the cell rigidity - provides hardness and strength

High LIGNIN concentration that gives the cell rigidity - provides hardness and strength

True or False: Sclerenchyma are typically dead at maturity and can thicken in response to external stimulus the way collenchyma can

False: Sclerenchyma ypically dead at maturity and DO NOT thicken in response to external stimulus the way collenchyma can


Formed from long strands of sclerenchyma and give the plant rigidity. They are also extracted to use in fabrics, flax-based linen, carpets and rope.


Cover cells with hard, tough cell walls.

Ex: They form hard covering around the seeds of stone fruits (like cherry and peach pits), the hard shell around walnuts and the covering of coconut

Vascular Tissues

Form the plumbing system in the plant through which water, nutrients and other compounds flow.

Vascular Bundles

Bundles of vascular tissues that come together.

True or False: Xylem and phloem are composed of different types of cells.



Moves water in the plant in a unidirectional form from the stem up to the leaf

True or False: Wood is made of phloem.

False: Wood is made of XYLEM.

Vascular Tissue is divided into 3 different types of tissue. Name them.

1. Xylem

2. Phloem

3. Vascular Cambium

What are the 4 different types of xylem tissue cells?

1. Vessels

2. Tracheid

3. Xylem Fibers

4. Xylem Parenchyma

What are the 4 different types of phloem tissue cells?

1. Sieve Tube Members

2. Companion Cells

3. Phloem Fibers

4. Phloem Parenchyma


Elongated cells that are dead at maturity and are perforated at end walls so water can move through. They have a large diameter and allow greater movement of water.


Elongated cells that are dead at maturity. They are narrower than vessels and contain pits for water movement. They are primitive.

Xylem Fibers

Located near the vessels and tracheids and are a part of the vascular bundle. They are strung together end to end with no pits or perforations. They provide flexible support for the plant within bundles but DO NOT move water!

Xylem Parenchyma

Located around vascular bundles and extend through the xylem/woody parts (horizontally). They develop into rays moving LATERALLY from center to exterior (unlike other vascular cells) and conduct water through the wood (xylem).

True or False: Phloem flow is bidirectional among leaf, stem and root.



Moves nutrients taken up by the roots to other parts of the plant. Phloem also moves sugars manufactured in leaves through photosynthesis along with other compounds such as plant hormones (auxin).

Sieve Tube Members

Elongated cells that join end to end to form tubes for liquid passage. The ends of these have pores, and unlike xylem cells, are ALIVE. They also contain thin cell membrane with layer of living protoplasm that hugs the cell wall.

Companion Cells

These cells are associated with sieve tube members and contain a nucleus. They may direct the metabolism of a sieve tube member.

Phloem Fibers

They are strung together end to end with no pits or perforations. They provide flexible support for the plant within bundles but DO NOT move water!

Phloem Parenchyma Cells

Adjoin sieve tube cells.

Vascular cambium

Meristematic region where new vascular tissues originate in plants with secondary growth.

Give an example of a vascular cambium specie


Meristematic region

Cells can divide to form new growth.