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418 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells that make up functional elements of an organ
Structural framework of an organ (background tissue)
What are the basic tissue types?
Connective Tissue
Nervous Tissue
What is used to fix tissue specimens?
What are the dyes in H&E and what do they stain?
Hematoxylin- blue, basic dye- stains acids/basophilic structures (e.g. nuclei)

Eosin- red-pink, acidic dyes, stains bases/eosinophilic structures (e.g. proteins)
What are the electron dense and electron lucent layers?
The cell membrane has a tri-layer appearance on EM. Two electron dense layers (hydrophilic, phospholipid heads) are separated by an electron lucent layer (hydrophobic, FA tails).
What are temperature, saturation of FAs, and cholesterol's effect on fluidity of a membrane?
Fluidity increases with increases temperature and decreases with saturation of fatty acids (saturation helps them back better, so the membrane gets stiffer). Increase in cholesterol stiffens the membrane and decreases fluidity.
What is a transducer?
A membrane protein that initiates an enzymatic reaction following binding with a ligand.
What are clathrins?
Receptor proteins located in pits of the cell membrane that aid in receptor-mediated endocytosis.
What is transcytosis?
Transport of material across or through the cell via sequential endocytosis followed by exocytosis
What is nucleoplasm?
Like cytoplasm, but in the nucleus
Do prokaryotes have histones?
What is an axoneme and do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have it?
Modified structure that allows flagella to move

Eukaryotes have axoneme
What are lamp brush chromosomes?
Active portions of chromosomes that are unraveled so that transcription can take place
Do the nuclear pore complexes close?
What is a polyribosome?
Aggregates of ribosomes and mRNA
What processes are used to produce ATP?
Kreb's cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
What are the folds on the inner membrane of the mitochondria called?
Where does anaerobic glycolysis take place?
Where does aerobic respiration take place?
Where are the enzymes of the Kreb's cycle contained?
mitochonria matrix
How is most ATP produced?
Oxidative phosphorylation by cytochromes of the Electron Transport System (in the cristae)
What are coated vesicles?
Vesicles that surround and coat proteins for transport between the smooth ER and Golgi.
The coating on the membrane acts as a bar code on the package to make sure the protein gets to where it needs to go.
Which side is the forming face of the Golgi? Maturing face?
Forming face = cis
Maturing face = trans
What are vesicles coated in when leaving the trans Golgi?
What type of condensing vacuoles are used for long term storage?
Secretory granules
Where are lysosomes formed?
Lysosomes are produced by rER and Golgi
How are secondary lysosomes formed?
Primary lysosomes fuse with phagocytic vesicles
What is a tertiary lysosome?
Result of the hydrolytitc breakdown from secondary lysosomes. These may be excreted or remain in the cell for life
What type of cell has very abundant residual bodies?
What is an endosome?
Type of endocytic vesicle with acidic pH in lumen
What is a peroxisome?
Membrane bound organelle containing oxidative enzymes
What does a peroxidase contain that a lysosome does not?
Catalase and peroxidase
What is an inclusion?
A non-living component of a cell
e.g. fat droplets, glycogen, pigment granules, viruses
What color is melanin? Lipfuscin?
Melanin- brown/black
Lipofuscin- golden brown granules
Lipofuscin sometimes called "old age pigment
What are the three main elements of cytoskeleton?
Intermediate filaments
What is the function of microfilaments?
Maintaining cell shape
Facilitate shape changes during movement
What type of cytoskeletal element is actin?
What protein links two actin molecules together?
What is the actin support meshwork of the cell called?
Cell cortex (terminal web)
What type of microfilament is found in microvilli and stereocilia?
Why is myosin used for?
muscle contraction
What is the most heterogeneous group of cytoskeletal filaments?
Intermediate filaments
What are the five major categories of intermediate filaments?
Neurofilament proteins
What is cytokeratin and where is it found?
Cytokeratin is an intermediate filament.
It is found in epithelial cells and forms tonofibrils.
What is Vimentin and where is it found?
Vimentin is an intermediate filament.
It is found in mesodermal cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle and neuroectodermal cells)
What is desmin and where is it found?
Desmin is an intermediate filament.
It is unique to muscle cells.
What is neurofilament protein and where is it found?
Neurofilament protein is an intermediate filament.
It is found in nerve cells (neurons).
What is GFAP and where is it found?
GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic proteins) is an intermediate protein.
It is found in glial (support) cells of the nervous system
Astrocytes = common example
What globular protein subunits make up microtubules and how are they arranged?
Alpha and beta tubulin arrange in a coiled, spiral patter
What are microtubules used for?
Cell movement
Maintenance of cell shape
Intracellular transport of substances
What proteins attach microtubules to organelles?
What ATPase provides every to microtubules?
Microtubule-associated proteins
Where are microtubules found?
Cilia and flagella
Basal bodies of cilia
Mitotic spindles
What is an axoneme?
9 pairs of microtubules arranges in a circle with 2 in the middle
In cilia, where does the axoneme come from?
Axoneme grows from the basal body (which is derived from modified centrioles)
Where are centrioles located?
What do centrioles function in?
Cell division
What is a pair of centrioles called?
What is the microtubule arrangement in centrioles?
9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a cylinder
What acts as the nucleation center for microtubules?
Which phase of the cell cycle is the longest?
What is hypertrophy and when does it occur?
Increase in cell size
Occurs during G1
What is hyperplasia and when does it occur?
Increase in cell number
Occurs at the tissue level during mitosis
Prior to replication, how many chromatids does a chromosome contain?
After replication, how many chromatids does a chromosome contain?
2 chromatids/chromosome
When does replication of centrioles occur?
During S phase
What occurs during G2?
Synthesis of ATP and tubulin for mitotic spindle
What are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is karykinesis?
Nuclear division
During what phases are the chromosomes condensed?
S, M, (and G2?)
What are facilitated dividers?
Cells that maintain the ability for division with proper stimulus
What does terminally differentiated mean?
The cell has lost the capacity to divide
What occurs during prophase?
Chromosomes (held together at kinetochore) condense and become visible
Microfilaments and microtubules disaggregate
Centrioles migrate to poles of the cell in the form of diplosomes
Nuclear membrane and nucleoli disappear
What occurs during metaphase?
Chromosomes line up along equator ("metaphase plate")
Chromosomes attach to microtubules at kineochore
What occurs during anaphase?
Centromeres split apart
Chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
What occurs during telophase?
Mitotic spindle disaggregates
Nuclear envelope reassembles
Cell membrane forms cleavage furrow
What is the mitotic index?
Used to describe the proportion of cells in a tissue in mitosis at a given time
(mitotic figures/HPF (high power field))
Usually less than 1
Important in tumor characterization
What does the fusion of gametes produce?
How is prophase I in meiosis different than prophase in mitosis?
Homologous pairs of chromosomes form tetrads and cross over
How is anaphase I in meiosis different from anaphase in mitosis?
In anaphase I, the centromeres do NOT split (makes
What stage are egg cells frozen at until they are used?
Prophase I
What is pyknosis?
Condensation of nuclear chromatin and shrinkage of nucleus. Occurs at the beginning of Apoptosis
What is autolysis?
When lysosomes release catalytic enzymes into the cytoplasm. It results in the cytoplasm becoming bright pink
Why does a cell swell during apoptosis?
Loss of ATP pump function results in an accumulation of sodium in the cell. This attracts water, which floods the cell.
How is the final pathway in apoptosis initiated and what does it cause?
Caspace Cascade

Reults in Karyolysis (chromatin breaks down) and Karyorhexis (nuclear material disintegrates)
What is another name for the nuclear debris from apoptosis?
Apoptotic bodies
Where does RBC production occur in each trimester of pregnancy in the fetus?
1st trimester- "blood islands" in wall of yold
2nd trimester- liver and lymphatic tissue
Last month of pregnancy- bone marrow
What is serum?
Plasma (liquid portion) minus clotting factors
What are albumins?
Plasma proteins (make up the bulk of plasma proteins)
Where are albumins synthesized?
What is the function of albumins?
Transport proteins for insoluble metabolites
What plasma protein is responsible for maintaining colloid osmotic pressure in blood vessels?
What are globulins?
Plasma protein
What are globulins used for?
Used as transport proteins for lipids and heavy metal ions
What is the most common type of globulin?
What are the largest blood proteins
Where are fibrinogens synthesized?
What is fibrinogen's insoluble form?
How is fibrinogen activated?
Prothromin is converted to thrombin
Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen to fibrin
What are the formed elements of the blood?
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What is PCV?
Packed cell volume
hematocrit +/- buffy coat
What is hematocrit?
Volume of RBCs
What is the buffy coat?
WBC's + platelets
What method is used to stain blood smears?
Romanovsky method
What is the diameter of erythrocytes?
6-8 um
What is the primary structural protein in RBCs?
What does spectrin do?
Primary structural protein in RBCs
Provides resiliency and deformability
Binds to plasma membrane and links actin and other proteins under the membrane
Is hemoglobin a pigment?
What does sickle cell anemia do to hemoglobin?
Changes the 3D structure
What is a Howell-Jolly body?
Basophilic nuclear remnants visible within cytoplasm of RBC
What are reticulocytes?
Immature RBC's with stippled cytoplasm
Slightly larger than mature RBCs
Commonly associated with hemolitic anemias
What is reticulocytosis?
Increase in number of reticulocytes in circulation associated with chronic blood loss
What is a left shift?
Hemolytic anemia
Shift towards immature RBCs (Reticulocytosis)
What happens to cells with iron deficient anemia?
RBCs are small (microcytic) and pale staining (hypochromatic)
How do RBCs make ATP?
Via anaerobic glycolysis
They have no mitochondria, so they cannot use aerobic respiration
What removes senescent RBCs from circulation?
Liver and spleen
What are thrombocytes?
What are megakaryocytes?
Large cells with single, multi-lobed nucleus
Form platelets
What are the two coagulation pathways?
Extrinsic (faster, result of tissue damage)
Intrinsic (slower, result of exposed collagen)
How is the extrinsic clotting pathway initiated?
By the release of tissue thromboplastin (found in cells)
How is the intrinsic clotting pathway initiated?
By the exposure of collagen
What do platelets do in the clotting pathway?
Adhere to exposed collagen
Release serotonin (vasoconstrictor)
Form plug

Draw to site by cytokines
What is the pathway where the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways converge?
Common pathway
What factor starts the common pathway?
What are the steps of the common pathway?
Factor X helps convert prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

Traps platelets and RBCs
What are some anticoagulants used in our blood?
Antithrombin III

Exhaustion of fibrinogen and removal of thrombin also helps stop clotting
What is deficient in Hemophilia A, B and C?
A- Factor VIII
B- Factor IX
C- Factor XI
How do leukocytes leave circulation?
Diapedesis (extravasation)
What attracts white blood cells?
Chemotaxis (cells let of cytokines)
Which white blood cells have primary granules?
BOTH granulocytes and agranulocytes
What color do primary granules stain?
What do primary granules contain?
Lysosomal enzymes (such as acid hydrolases)
What do granulocytes pocesses?
Specific granules (secondary granules)
What do secondary granules possess?
Lysozyme and alkaline phosphatases
What are the different types of granulocytes and what do they have in common (as seen on slides)?
Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

They all have single, multilobed nuclei and prominent cytoplasmic granules
What is the most common granulocyte?
How many lobes does a neutrophil nucleus contain?
3-5 lobes
How long can neutrophils live in tissue?
Several hours to days
How do most neutrophils make energy?
Anaerobic glycolysis (they can work in oxygen deprived environments)
What special antimicrobial do primary granules of neutrophils contain?
Why were neutrophils names as such?
They have both acidic and basic granules, so they are considered neutral.
What are contained in the secondary granules of neutrophiles?
Inflammatory mediators and complement activators (such as proteases, defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme)
What is contained in tertiary granules of neutrophils?
Gelatinase (breaks down collagen and allows them to squeeze through spaces)
What type of infection are neutrophils associated with?
Acute (several days)
How do neutrophils move?
Amoeboid movement
What is the primary function of neutrophils?
What process enhances phagocytosis?
Opsonization (coating bacteria with Ab)
What is respiratory burst?
Neutrophils killing bacteria by generating hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid
What type of WBC are barr bodies often visible in?
What is the least common WBC?
What is the circulating equivalent of mast cells?
What are basophils called once they enter tissue?
Mast cells
What is the lifespan of mast cells?
probably days (though uncertain)
What type of granules do basophils have?
Large basophilic secondary granules
What is the least common WBC?
What is the circulating equivalent of mast cells?
What are basophils called once they enter tissue?
Mast cells
What is the lifespan of mast cells?
probably days (though uncertain)
What type of granules do basophils have?
Large basophilic secondary granules
What do basophil secondary granules contain?
Hydrolytic enzymes
Heparin sulfate
Condroitin sulfate
What is degranulation?
Release of granule content into ECS
What type of WBC is used in type I hypersensitivity reactions?
How long do eosinophils remain in circulation before entering tissue? How long do they remain in tissue?
3-6 hours
8-12 days in tissue
What do eosinophilic specific granules contain?
Hydrolytic enzymes (histaminase, eosinophil peroxidase, lysosomal enzymes, major basic protein)
What WBS counteracts the effects of basophils?
How long are monocytes present in the blood stream?
2-3 days
What are monocytes in tissue called?
What are macrophages lifespan?
several months
What are macrophages main function?
What type of infection are macrophages active in?
Subacute to chronic (7-10 days to 2 weeks)
What happens when macrophages try to phagocytose something that is too big?
They fuse together to become epitheliod giant cells to wall off the item they are trying to digest
What are macrophages function in lymphoid organs?
Antigen presenting cells
What type of infections are lymphocytes active in?
Subacute to chronic (1 week-10 days--> >10 days)
What is the lifespan of a lymphocyte?
days to years
Which type of WBC has two size classes?
What type of WBC are T and B cells?
Why type of immunity do B cells function in?
Humorally mediated immunity (antibodies)
What is a B cell called while it is producing antibodies?
Plasma Cell
If a B cell cannot make antibodies to an antigen, what is its function?
Antigen presenting
What type of immunity do T cells participate in?
Cell mediated immunity
What type of receptors do T cells have on their surface and what do they do?

Recognize epitopes of antigens
What are the three types of T-cells?
Cytotoxic (killer)
How do cytotoxic T cells do their job?
They recognize cells with foreign surface antigens and kill them by punching holes in their plasma membranes
What is the job of Helper T cells?
Recognize antigen and sound the chemical alarm to stimulate b cells (to produce antibodies) or killer t cells
What do suppressor T cells do?
Suppress activity of b-cells, especially to self molecules
What do null cells do?
Nonspecific cytotoxicity (e.g. against virus infected or tumor cells)
What is the relative concentration of WBCs?
Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, eosinophil, basophil
(Never let monkeys eat bananas)
What is a CBC?
Complete blood count (absolute number of WBCs)
What is a differential cell count?
Relative percentage of WBCs
What is primitive connective tissue derived from?
Mesodermal mesenchyme
What do fibroblasts synthesize?
Proteinaceous ground substances and connective tissue fibers (collagen, elastin, reticular fibers)
What do reticular cells synthesize?
Reticular fibers (made of reticulin)
What function might reticular cells have that a regular fibroblast may not?
Phagocytic function
What is the function of adipocytes?
Storage and metabolism of lipids
What is the most common type of collagen?
Type I collagen
What does type I collagen do?
Connective tissue of skin, tendons, ligaments, bone and fibrocartilage
Where is type II collagen found?
Hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage
What is type II collagen composed of?
Reticulin fibers
Where is type IV collagen found?
Basement membrane
What type of molecule is collagen?
What is collagen initially synthesized as?
Procollagen, which forms a triple helix
What is formed when procollagen is secreted into the extracellular space?
Enzymatic modifications form tropocollagen from procollagen
How is collagen formed from tropocollagen?
Polymerization of tropocollagen into larger bundles results in formation of collagen microfibrils, which combine to form fibers, which combine to form bundles
Map out collagen synthesis
procollagen --> tropocollagen --> collagen microfibrils --> collagen fiber --> collagen bundles
What are the two components of elastic fibers?
Elastin and Fibrillin
What fibers are abnormal in Marfan's syndrome?
Where is fibronectin found and what is its function?
Basement membranes
Aids in adhesion between cell membrane and ECM via integrins
What are laminin, entactin and tenascin related to?
Basement membranes
What is ground substance made of?
Long, unbranched polysaccharide chains of repeating disaccharide units
What is Ehlers-Danlose syndrome?
Problem with GAGs in ECM
Characterized by hyperextensibility of joints (because there is a problem with ground substance)
What are the five types of GAGs and where is each found?
Hyaluronic acid (connective tissue)
Chondroitin sulfate (cartilage and bones)
Keratan sulfate (cartilage, bone, cornea, intervertebral disk)
Dermatan sulfate (dermis of skin, blood vessels, heart valves)
Heparan suflate (basement membrane, lung, liver)
What GAG is predominant in loose connective tissue?
Hyaluronic acid
Which GAG is an impervious barrier to microorganisms?
Hyaluronic acid found in ground substance
What are the forms of connective tissue?
Loose (areolar)
Where is loose (areolar) connective tissue found?
Beneath epithelia, nerves and vessels
What are the two types of dense connective tissue?
Regular and irregular
How are collagen fibers arranged in regular connective tissue?
Parallel to one another
How are collagen fibers arranged in irregular connective tissue?
What are considered specialized connective tissues?
Bone, blood, cartilage, adipose tissue, hematopoietic tissue, and lymphatic tissue
What type of cells does adipose tissue contain and what are they derived from?
Adipose tissue contains adipocytes which are derived from lipoblasts
What are the functions of adipose tissue?
Energy storage
Shock absorber
Where is white fat found?
Dermas and around intraperitoneal organs
What is the main purpose of brown fat?
Thermoregulation (lots of mitochondria = heat)
What type of pigment is vitamin A?
Carotinoid pigment (fat turns rosy/pink with vitamin A)
What is a mucous membrane?
Epithelial tissue that lines cavities that connect with the outside world
What are the three epithelial types?
Mucous membrane, serous membrane, endothelium
What is a serous membrane?
Epithelium that lines closed body cavities (LACKS muscularis mucosa)
What is endothelium?
Epithelium that lines blood vessels
What does the basement membrane provide?
Structural suppose
Scaffolding for growth, differentiation, and migration of cells
What are the major components of the basement membrane?
GAG's (heparan sulfate)
Type IV collagen
Structural glycoproteins (laminin, fibronectin, entactin)
What are the layers on the basement membrane which show up on EM?
Lamina lucida (electron lucent)
Lamina densa (electron dense)
Lamina reticularis (electron lucent)
How is the basal lamina anchored to underlying connective tissue?
Microfibrils of type IV collagen
/what are the three functional types of cell junctions?
What is another name for occluding junctions?
Tight junctions
Where are occluding junctions found?
Immediately beneath the luminal surface of simple columnar epithelia
What is the purpose of occluding junctions?
Prevent fluid from leaking around cells
True or False: Portions of opposing cell membranes fuse together in occluding junctions?
What is another name for adhering junctions?
Anchoring junctions
What is the purpose of adhering junctions?
Bind cells together and act as anchoring points for the cell cytoskeleton
What is a zonula adherens?
Continuous band characterized by glycoproteins called cadherins

Kind of like velcro
True or False: In adhering junctions, adjacent cell membranes fuse together
What is a macula adherens?
A type of adhering junction that holds cells together at a small point- really, a tiny zonula adherens
What is another name for macula adherens?
What is the most common type of cell function
Macula adherens
What is a hemidesmosome?
An adhering junction found on the basal surface of the cell ONLY
Anchors cell to basement membrane using integrins
What is a junctional complex?
Specialized, circumferential, intercellular connection

Hybrid between adhering and occluding junctions

Three separate zones (Zonula occludens, zonula adherens, macula adherens)
What is another name for a communicating junction?
Gap junction
What is a communicating junction?
circular, intercellular contact area with channels in it (connexons(
What are the proteins and rings of communicating junctions called?
Rings- connexons
Proteins- connexins
What are microvilli and what type of filament do they contain?
Finger-like cytoplasmic projection containing actin
Where are stereocilia found?
Epididymis of males and sensory cells of inner ear
What are cilia and what type of filament do they contain?
Long, motile, cytoplasmic extensions containing microtubules in a "9+2" arrangement
Where does each cilium arise from?
Basal body (which develops in centrioles)
What is metachronal rhythm?
Combination of effective stroke and recovery stroke

Like the wave in a football stadium
What is dynein's role in cilia?
To allow the microtubules to slide past one another
What is Kartagener's syndrome?
causes sterility in males and situs inversus (heart on wrong side)

Due to absense of ciliary action
What are the three criteria which epithelial are classified according to?
Number of cell layers
Shape of cell (at epithelial surface)
Surface specializations
What does simple, stratified, and pseudostratified mean?
Simple- 1 layer of cells
Stratified- 2 or more cell layers
Pseudostratified- looks stratified but isn't (all cells rest on basement membrane, but not all reach epithelial surface)
What is squamous, cuboidal, and columnar?
Squamous- w>h
Cuboidal- w~d~h
Columnar- h>w
What are glands classified based on?
Morphology (shape), type of secretory product, mode of discharge
What is a serous demilunes?
In mixed ducts, serous acini pushes right up next to mucous acini
What characterizes endocrine glands?
Lack ducts
Secrete products directly into bloodstream
What characterizes exocrine glands?
Secretes product onto epithelial surface via ducts

Contain specialized contractile cells (myoepithelial cells)
What are myoepithelial cells?
Specialized contractile cells in exocrine glands
What are goblet cells?
Specialized unicellular exocrine glands

Have a little opening continuous with epithelium so the secretions can get to the epithelial layer
What is merocrine discharge?
Only the secretory product is released- involves simple exocytosis
What is the most common form of discharge?
What is apocrine discharge?
Secretory products accomanpied by some cytoplasm
What is holocrine discharge?
Entire cell secreted
Ruptures, releases contents
What is muscule cytoplasm called?
What is muscle plasma membrane called?
What are the three types of muscle?
True or False: Each muscle fiber can contract part way
False- each muscle fiber exhibits an all or non response
What determines the strength of an overall muscle contraction? What is this called?
Total number of muscle fibers contracting at any given time
Called graded response
What is a motor unit?
Group of muscle fibers supplied by a single motor neuron
Do all muscle fibers in a motor unit contract together?
Is the size of a motor unit constant?
No- smaller motor units = greater fine control
What is recruitment?
Increase number of motor units firing within a muscle cell (increases strength of response)
What is a syncitia?
Multinucleated skeletal muscle cells
Where are nuclei located in skeletal muscle cells?
Can skeletal muscle cells divide?
What is endomysium?
Connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers
What is a fascicle?
Several fibers bound together
What is perimysium
Connective tissue which surround many fascicles together (form muscle)
What is epimysium?
Connective tissue which surrounds the entire muscle
Where are blood vessels found in muscle?
Tend to follow connective tissues (epimysium and perimysium) for support
What are the two types of skeletal muscle fibers?
Slow twitch
Fast twitch
What is the difference between the innervation of fast twitch and slow twitch skeletal muscle fibers?
Fast twitch are innervated by fast neurons
Slow twitch are innervated by slow neurons
What type of contractile proteins do fast and slow muscle fibers have?
Fast- "fast" myosin
Slow- "slow" myosin
Are fast and slow twitch muscle fibers found in the same muscles?
Yes, muscles are a checkerboard of fast and slow twitch muscle fiber
Which type of muscle fiber has a large amount of myoglobin?
Slow twitch fibers (uses aerobic respiration for oxidative metabolism)
Which type of muscle fiber has a large number of mitochondria?
Slow twitch
Which type of muscle fiber is resistant to fatigue?
Slow twitch
Which type of muscle fiber generates moderate muscle tension?
Slow twitch
What type of muscle fiber is associated with red meat?
Slow twitch
What type of muscle fiber has large fibers?
Fast twitch
Which type of muscle has less myoglobin and fewer mitochondria?
Fast twitch
Which type of muscle fiber uses primarily anaerobic glycolysis?
Fast twitch
Which type of muscle fiber has extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum for rapid calcium release?
Fast twitch
What type of muscle fiber is associated with white meat?
Fast twitch
During peak exertion, what type of muscle fibers metabolize glycogen via anaerobic glycolysis?
Both fast and slow twitch
What is rhabdomyolysis?
Type I (slow) muscle fibers break down and release myoglobin and stuff into ECS. Lead to kidney failure and death (especially in captured zoo animals)
What is the muscle cell increase in size called?
What is muscle cell decrease in size called?
What is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle fibers?
How is skeletal muscle regenerated?
Satellite cells which differentiate into myoblasts
What are neuromuscular spindles?
Muscle spindles located within the belly of muscles sensitive to changes in length
What are neurotendinous spindles?
Located within tendons and sensitive to changes in tension
What are individual muscle fibers composed of?
What are myofibrils composed of?
Myofilaments (contractile proteins)
What are the two types of myofilaments?
Actin (thin filament)
Myosin (thick filament)
What is the ratio of actin and myosin present in skeletal muscle?
2 actin: 1 myosin
What is the anchoring points for actin in skeletal muscle?
Z discs
Where do actin and myosin overlap in skeletal muscle?
A band
What is the dilated terminal portion of an axon that is myelinated?
Motor end plate
What is the dilated terminal portion of the axon that is unmyelinated?
Terminal bouton
What are t-tubules?
Gopher holes in skeletal muscle that allows the wave of depolarization to go down into the cell so that calcium can be released in the depths of the cell as well as on the surface
What do t-tubules form with cisternae?
2 cisternae + T-tubule
Where is calcium stored in skeletal muscle cells?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminal cisternae
What happens when calcium is released in skeletal muscle cells?
Calcium causes changes in troponin and tropomyosin which allow actin and myosin to interact
What type of muscle can contract independent of neural input?
Smooth muscle
What type of muscle is specialized for prolonged contractions with low force?
Smooth muscle
(skeletal muscle for short periods, high force)
Which has smaller fibers: smooth muscle or skeletal muscle?
Smooth muscle
What ratio are actin and myosin present in in smooth muscle?
What structures act as an attachment site for actin in smooth muscle?
Dense bodies
Do smooth muscles have a T-tubule system?
What are caveolae?
Functional equivalent to T-tubules, but they are just little invaginations on cell surface of smooth muscle cells
What does smooth muscle use instead of troponin to control myosin binding?
What type of muscle cells relies on diffusion of extracellular calcium for contration?
Smooth muscle
Is sympathetic stimulation excitatory or inhibitory to smooth muscle?
What are the two types of smooth muscle?
Single Unit (fibers contract together, most common)
Multi unit (individual muscle fibers contract independently, not very common)
Can smooth muscle divide and repair itself?
What are myoepithelial cells?
Glandular epithelial cells which contract to secrete product
What is the sac-like connective tissue that surrounds the heart
What is the inner serous layer of the periccardium made of?
Mesothelial cells?
What are the three layers of the heart?
What is the last fat for a starving person to lose?
Fat surrounding the heart
What is the connective tissue in the heart primarily composed of?
Fibroblasts and collagen
What is it called when the connective tissue ossifies around AV valves?
os cordis
What do t tubules and terminal cisterna form in cardiac muscle?
Diad (one t tubule and one termianl cisterna)
Where do cardiac muscles meet?
Intercalated discs
What type of cell junctions are found in intercalated discs?
Fascia adherens
Gap junctions
What do t tubules and terminal cisterna form in cardiac muscle?
Diad (one t tubule and one termianl cisterna)
What makes up the conduction system of the heart?
SA node
AV node
Bundle of His
Purkinje fibers
Where do cardiac muscles meet?
Intercalated discs
What coordinates conduction of heart muscle?
Myocytes (NOT neurons)
What type of cell junctions are found in intercalated discs?
Fascia adherens
Gap junctions
What makes up the conduction system of the heart?
SA node
AV node
Bundle of His
Purkinje fibers
What coordinates conduction of heart muscle?
modified Myocytes (NOT neurons)
What is the pacemaker of the heart and where is it located?
SA node
Location at junction of superior vena cava and right atrium
Follow the path of the electrical impulse of the heart.
SA node --> AV node (between RA and RV, delays impulse) --> travels down IVS via bundle of His --> branches into right and left AV bundles --> purkinje fibers
Where do the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the heart come from?
Sympathetic- sympathetic ganglia
Parasympathetic- vagus nerve
What is cytoplasm of a neuron called?
What is Nissl substance?
Rough ER in neurons
Where does the axon arise from?
Axon hillock
Where does the axon terminate?
Terminal bouton
What are the basic neuron types?
Multi-polar (several dendrites)
Bipolar (single dendrite opposite axon)
Unipolar (no dendrites, axon only)
Pseudounipolar (single dendrite and axon fuse, soma off to one side)
What type of neuron is most common?
Multi-polar neuron
What separates the terminal bouton and effector cell?
Synaptic cleft
What are the two neurotransmitters used in the PNS?
What neurotransmitter does the sympathetic division use?
Adrenaline (epi)
What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic division use?
What is tetany?
When muscle cells are continuously stimulated, can lead to death
What are the functional divisions of the nervous system?
In the autonomic nervous system, how many neurons connect the CNS to the viscera?
What is a ganglia?
Discrete aggregations of neuron cell bodies located outside of the CNS
In ganglia, what are cell bodies surrounded by?
Satellite cells
Where are prevertebral ganglia located?
Anterior to the spine
Where are paravertebral ganglia locationed?
Sympathetic trunk
Where are parasympathetic ganglia located?
In or near the effector organ
In what type of tissue can the peri- layer be on the outside?
Nervous tissue
What layer of connective tissue do blood vessels tend to follow with nerves//.
Epi- and peri- neurium
Why are non-myelinated nerves termed as such?
Each does not have its own Schwann cell- many share a Schwann cell
What makes a nerve myelinated?
The neuron is surrounded by a Sheath of Schwann (or neurilemma), made of a Schwann cell wrapped around many many times
What myelinates cells in the CNS?
How do oligodendrocytes differ from Schwann cells?
An oligodendrocyte will have extensions around many neurons and is less organized
Which of the follow ions have a higher concentration outside of the cell than inside: Na, Cl, K
Na and Cl are higher outside
K is higher inside
Is the membrane potential negative inside or outside of the cell?
Membrane is negative inside
Track and action potential
Reach threshold
Voltage gated Na channels open, Na rushes into cell (makes it more positive)
Voltage gated K channels open, K leaks out of the cell (makes it less positive)
Cell returns to homeostasis
What type of cells are meninges composed of?
Meningothelial cells
What are the three layers of the meninges (external to internal)
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
What supports the dura mater in the spinal cord?
Denticulate ligaments
What does the epidural space contain?
Fat and connective tissue
What does the subdural space contain?
Hopefully nothing, it is a potential space
What are the leptomeninges?
Pia + arachnoid maters
What produces cerebrospinal fluid?
Choroid plexus
Where is the choroid plexus located?
Walls of the ventricle in the brain
What does gray matter contain?
Neuron cell bodies, dendrites and axons
What does what matter contain?
myelinated axons
Where are the white and gray matter located in the brain?
White- inside
Gray- outside
How do white and gray matter stain in H&E?
White matter stains redder
Gray matter stains pinker
What are the support cells in the CNS called?
What are the CNS equivalent of Schwann cells?
What are the functions of astrocytes?
Structural and metabolic support
Aid in tissue repair
Fills spaces between neurons
What is the most common type of neuroglial cell in white matter?
What is the most common type of neuroglial cell in gray matter?
What are microglia's function?
Phagocytic (they are fixed tissue macrophages)
Where do microglia cells originate from?
Where are ependymal cells found?
Lining ventricles of gray matter and central canal of spinal cord
What is neocortex?
Part of cerebrum that has sensory, motor and association areas. ~90% of cortex in humans
What are gyri?
Folds in the cortex
What are tracts?
Grouped axon bundles leading in and out of gray matter in the brain
Where is the medulla found?
Deep to the white matter
What does the cerebellum do?
Coordinates muscular activity, posture and equilibrium
What are the two layers of the cerebellar cortex?
Outer molecular layer (few layers, unmyelinated axons)
Inner granular layer (cellular, basophilic, lots of neuroglial cells, contains granule cells (small neurons)
What separates the molecular and granular layers?
Purkinje cells
What is found in the central canal?
What lines the central canal?
Ependymal cells
What color does CSF stain?
Pink- it is high in proteins
How are the white matter and gray matter arranged in the spinal cord?
Gray matter is central
White matter is peripheral
What is contained in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
Neuron cell bodies and axons
How do nerves repair themselves in the PNS?
If the gap is not too big, Schwann cells multiply and physcially bridge the gap
Nerve axon sprouts neuritis from the proximal stump
Neuritis grow into distal stump (contact reestablishes function)
What is anterograde degeneration?
Portion of axon distal to the point of injury degenerates
What is retrograde degeneration?
Death of a cell body due to sever injury to the nerve
How do nerves repair themselves in the CNS?
Neuroglial cells multiply... a lot
Neuroglial cells go overboard and form scar tissue, preventing regeneration
What is MS?
Multiple sclerosis
An autoimmune, inflammatory, myelination disease of the CNS
What is Guillain-Barre disease?
Infection causes antibodies to be made, but then it attacks skeletal muscle.
It severe, lose control the breathing muscles and could die