Difference In Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

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Introduction to Cell Biology – Unit 10193 – Chloe Barrett This essay discusses the difference in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, two types of specialised eukaryotic cell, and the relation of the structure of cell membranes to their function of moving substances in and out of cells.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are two very different, but also very similar cells. There are many differences between them that can help to associate between each one. Eukaryotes are any organism that consists of one or more cells that have DNA in a membrane-bound nucleus.(En.wikipedia.org, 2017) A eukaryotic cell is a large, more complex cell compared to a prokaryote. Inside a eukaryote, consists of many different organelles, all with vital roles to play
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I am going to focus on sperm cells and root hair cells. A sperm cell is involved in sexual reproduction and the fertilisation of an egg. It has a head shaped like a sphere, a neck, a middle piece and a tail. The head contains the nucleus and a dome-shaped acrosome, which is responsible for releasing a fluid that breaks down the outside of the ovum to allow the sperm to enter. In the neck of the sperm cell, there are centrioles. In the middle piece of the tail is mitochondria. This is a very important part of the sperm cell because it is where the cell gets its energy to be able to do anything. There are plenty of mitochondria in the middle piece, and the mitochondria create energy in form of AATP by the use of aerobic respiration. This can relate to the structure as the middle piece has a tubular structure, therefore the mitochondria are spiraled inside, this means you can fit more mitochondria into the middle piece. The tail of a sperm cell is a long thing flexible structure, which helps the sperm swim towards the egg cell that has been released. (Biology.lifeeasy.org, …show more content…
A cell membrane consists of phospholipids. These are two fatty acid chains attached to a phosphate head. The phosphate head is hydrophilic (polar), which means it likes water, however, the tails are hydrophobic (non-polar) which means doesn't like water. The phospholipids either form a micelle or bilayer structure. In the structures, the heads face towards water whereas the tails face away from the water. The tails are non-polar, hydrophobic, this relates to the function because they act as a barrier, charged particles. (wiseGEEK, 2017) In the cell membrane, there are proteins. There are two types of proteins, intrinsic proteins which are all the way throughout the cell membrane, and the extrinsic proteins, which are on the inner or outer surface of the membrane. Intrinsic proteins are known as carrier proteins, these help certain substances pass through the membrane, specifically the ones that cannot do it alone, for example, charged ions. Extrinsic proteins are used for cell-signaling or cell recognition. Because the phospholipids are like a fluid, they stay in the structure but move around freely, and the proteins are dotted about, it is known as the fluid mosaic model. (Differencebetween.com, 2017) Also throughout the membrane is cholesterol. This plays a big part in controlling the membranes fluidity. The more cholesterol in the

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