• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

What is the activation energy in a reaction?

The activation energy is the amount of energy it takes to start a chemical reaction

Think graphs

What is ionisation energy?

The amount of energy it takes to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms

Think removing

What is an exothermic reaction?

It is a reaction that gives out energy so the product(s) often have more energy than the reactant(s)

Is it more or less energy than reactant?

Is delta H positive or negative for an exothermic reaction?

Negative because products have less energy than the reactant.

Is delta H for an endothermic reaction positive or negative?

Positive because reactants have less energy than the products.

What is an activated complex?

The middle stage of a reaction. It has lots of energy.

What is a heterogeneous catalyst?

When the reactants and catalyst are in different States

What is a homogeneous catalyst?

When the reactants and catalyst are in the same state

What do catalysts do to the activation energy?

They reduce/lower it

What happens to the number of energy levels as you go across a period?

Stays the same

What happens to the size of atoms as you go across a period?

It decreases

What are delocalised electrons?

In metallic bonding, the electrons in the outershell tend to move from atom to atom. They don't belong to one atom.

What happens to the strength of metallic bonding as you go across a period?

It increases because the positive core pulls electrons closer to the nucleus

What are london dispersion forces?

Weak intermolecular bonds

What is a permanent dipole?

When electrons in an atom become unevenly distributed

What is a fullerene?

Covalent molecules that have a big formula.

What describes the shape of fullerenes?

Football shaped or tube shaped

What are polymorphs?

They are different forms of the same element. Like graphite and diamond. They are both made form carbon

What is the structure of a covalent network?

A large lattice

What is the melting point and boiling points of covalent network elements?

In the thousands (°c)

Why do covalent network elements have such a high melting and boiling points?

Because you have to break every covalent bond in the lattice.

Why do ionic bonds have such high melting points?

They have a crystal lattice structure contain many bonds and take up more energy to break

Why do covalent solids have low melting points?

It's not the bonds that break in covalent bonds, it's the intermolecular bonds called london dispersion forces

What is electronegativity?

Is the measure of how strong the attraction is between the nucleus and the electrons in an atom

What happens to electronegativity when you go along a period?

It increases

What happens to electronegativity when we go down a group?

It decreases

Why does electronegativity increase and what happens to the covalent radius?

There are more electrons in the atom and the covalent radius gets smaller

Why does electronegativity decrease and what happens to the covalent radius?

The covalent radius gets bigger because energy shells are added. Because of the increased number of shells, the attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electrons and electronegativity decreases.

What is polar covalent bonding?

An unequal sharing of electrons

What is hydrogen bonding?

•a permanent dipole-permentent dipole attraction

• between hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine only

What is intermolecular bonding?

Bonding between atoms not in them

What is an intramolecular bond?

Within atoms not between them