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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

any event or situation that triggers coping adjustments


the process by which we perceive and respond to events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging


a measure of crowding based on the total number of people living in an area of limited size

population density

a psychological state in which people believe that they do not have enough space to function as they wish


a stressor in which people fear negative evaluation by others of their appearance or ability

social-evaluative threat

the experience of stress in a situation where a person's ability, appearance, or other characteristic has the potential to confirm a negative viewpoint about his or her social group

stereotype threat

a job-related state of physical and psychological exhaustion


the process by which a member of one ethnic or racial group adopts the values, customs, and behaviors of another


the body's initial, rapid-acting response to stress, involving the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla under the direction of the sympathetic nervous system

sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) system

the body's delayed response to stress, involving the secretion of corticosteroid hormones from the adrenal cortex

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system

the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as the level of glucose in the blood, around a particular set point


hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that fight inflammation, promote healing, and trigger the release of stored energy


a method of measuring stress that involves repeated sampling of people's behaviors and experiences in real time, and in their natural environment

ecological momentary assessment (EMA)

the field of research that emphasizes the interaction of psychological, neural, and immunological processes in stress and illness

psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

the cumulative long-term effects of the body's physiological response to stress

allostatic load (allostasis)

the idea that chronic stress promotes the development and progression of disease by reducing the sensitivity of immune system receptors to glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, thereby interfering with the body's ability to regulate the inflammatory response

glucocorticoid recepter (GCR) resistance model

Selye's term for the body's reaction to stress, which consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Lazarus's theory that the experience of stress depends as much on the individual's cognitive appraisal of a potential stressor's impact as it does on the event or situation itself

transactional model

a person's initial determination of an event's meaning, whether irrelevant, benign-positive, or threatening

primary appraisal

a person's determination of whether his or her own resources and abilities are sufficient to meet the demands of an event that is appraised as potentially threatening or challenging

secondary appraisal

the process by which potentially stressful events are constantly reevaluated

cognitive reappraisal

the model that proposes that two interacting factors determine an individual's susceptibility to stress and illness: predisposing factors in the person (such as genetic vulnerability) and precipitating factors from the environment (such as traumatic experiences)

diathesis-stress model

our physiological reaction to stress, which varies by individual and affects our vulnerability to illness


a psychological disorder triggered by exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor, such as combat or a natural disaster; symptoms include haunting memories and nightmares of the traumatic event, extreme mental distress, and unwanted flashbacks

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

a behavioral response to stress that is focused on protecting offspring (tending) and seeking others for mutual defense (befriending)