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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Three Approaches to Stress

Stressor as stimuli

Stress as a transaction

Stress as a response

Stressors as Stimuli

•Focuses on identifying types of stressful events

•Helps identify situations that cause more stress and persons that react more strongly

•Disasters that impact an entire community can increase social awareness and cement interpersonal bonds

Stress as a Transaction

•Examines how people interpret and cope with stressful events

•Primary and secondary appraisals to determine if a situation is harmful and then if we can cope with it

•Problem-focused vs emotion-focused coping

Stress as a Response

•Assesses psychological and physical reactions to stress

•Can be lab-induced or real-world stressors

•Measure large number of outcome variables, including corticosteroids

Measuring Stress

•Number of major life events over past year relate to physical and psychological health

•The Social Readjustment Rating Scale ranks a number of particularly stressful events

•Neglects coping resources or chronic issues

Mechanics of Stress

•The pattern of response to stress is called the:

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Mechanics of Stress

•Alarm reaction -

autonomic nervous system is activated, stress hormones released, physical symptoms of anxiety

•HPA axis and fight or flight response

Mechanics of Stress

•Resistance –

you adapt and find ways to cope with the stressor

Mechanics of Stress

•Exhaustion –

in prolonged stressors, our resistance can break down

•Can cause physical or psychological damage

Diversity of Stress Responses

•Women are more likely to ________and __________ than males

tend and befriend

•They nurture (tend) or seek social support (befriend) when faced with a potentially dangerous situation

•Operates in conjunction with fight or flight

Diversity of Stress Responses

•Long-lasting stress reactions can result in:

acute stress disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

•Lifetime prevalence rates are 5% in males and 10% in females

The Immune System

Our body’s defense against invading bacteria, viruses, and other illness-producing organisms

•Consists of the skin, phagocytes, lymphocytes (T and B cells), and macrophages

•Can be compromised by disorders like AIDS


•Study of the relationship between the immune system and central nervous system

•For example:

•High levels of stress over the past year make you more susceptible to catching cold virus

•Caring for someone with Alzheimer’s is associated with lower ability to heal from injury and decrease blood clotting

Stress-Related Illnesses

•Authentic illnesses that emotions and stress contribute to or maintain are called _______________


•Ulcers (caused by bacteria)

•Coronary heart disease


•Biopsychosocial perspective on illness

Coronary Heart Disease

•The complete or partial blockage of the arteries that provide oxygen to the heart

•Top cause of death and disability in the US

•Associated with number of factors, especially stress

Coronary Heart Disease

•Aspects of a ________ ____ personality place one at high risk for CHD, especially anger and hostility

_________ _____________status also places at heightened risk due to lowered ability to cope with stressors

Type A

•Lower socioeconomic

Coping with Stress

•Social support encompasses:

interpersonal relations with people, groups, and the larger community

•Higher levels associated with lower mortality rates

•Gaining control of situations can also relieve stress

Gaining Control

•Informational control and proactive coping

•Cognitive control –

challenge and restructure thoughts that arise

Gaining Control

•Decisional –

choose among differing courses of action

Gaining Control

•Emotional -

the ability to suppress and express emotions

Flexible Coping

•Ability to adjust coping strategies as the situation demands is critical to contending with many stressful situations

•Suppressing and avoiding emotions distracts us from problem solving and may cause emotions to return in greater force

Individual Differences

•Hardiness is a set of attitudes where you:

•See change as a challenge instead of a threat

•Are committed to their life and work

•Believe you can control events

•Related to low-levels of anxiety proneness and general tendency to react calmly to stress

Individual Differences

•Optimistic persons are:

more productive, focused, and handle frustration better

•Also show lower levels of mortality and better immune system response

•Higher levels of spirituality and religion have many of the same benefits

Memory and Studying Primer

Encoding –

getting information into memory

Memory and Studying Primer

•Storage –

keeping information in memory

Memory and Studying Primer

•Retrieval –

Getting information out of memory

•Retrieval VS Recall

Self-Regulated Learning: Bjork, Dunlosky, & Kornell (2013)

allocate attention efficiently.

interpret and elaborate the information.

make studying variable (e.g., interpretations, examples)

space studying and repeat several times.

organize and structure the information.

visualize the information.

reinstate context during test.

generate and retrieve.

Less effective strategies


write summaries of texts


marking important passages while reading

imagery for text

form images while reading or listening


restudy text after initial time

keyword mnemonic

associating by keywords and imagery

More effective strategies

elaborative interrogation

generating explanation for why something is true


relating new to known; explaining steps

interleaved practice

schedule to mix different kinds of material

distributed practice

schedule study over time

practice testing

self-test or take practice tests


McDaniel, Howard, & Einstein (PS, 2009)—compared just RRR to note-taking and rereading using a variety of test formats

read the text, set the text aside and recite out loud all that they could remember, and then read the text a second time

Taking information in: Encoding

Production effect:

saying something aloud helps memory

Strengthening memory: Reminding

Production repetition:


Getting information out: Retrieval

testing effect (retrieval practice) =

testing provides practice in activating these retrievals; studying does not

better recall from retrieving (testing) than from additional study

Getting information out: Retrieval

in encoding associations between items, we also encode:

the process to retrieve those items

Getting information out: Retrieval

testing provides practice in activating these retrievals; ________ does not


Karpicke & Roediger (2008) Study

Learn 40 Swahili – English word pairs

Study each pair for 5 sec

Test: see Swahili word – type English word

Karpicke & Roediger (2008) Study

do one study-test cycle and then divide into 4 groups:

ST – continue to study and test all pairs

ST – drop correct pairs out of further study but continue to test them

ST – drop correct pairs out of further tests but continue to study them

ST – drop correct pairs out of both further study and further tests

Karpicke & Roediger (2010)

Study: read scientific text once

Retrieve once: study text once, recall, reread text

Repeated retrieval: alternate study & recall 4 times

Tested after 1 week