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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any event or situation that triggers coping adjustments
The process by which we perceive and respond to events that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging
Walter Cannon
First termed the fight-or-flight reaction
Fight-or-Flight Reaction
Outpouring of epinephrine norepinephrine, cortisol, and other hormones that prepare an organism to defend against a threat
SAM (sympatho-adreno-medullary) System
Body's initial rapid-acting response to stress and it involves the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) System
Body's delayed response to stress involving the secretion of corticosteriod hormones from the adrenal cortex
Subfield of health psychology that emphasizes interaction of psychological (psych) neuroendocrine (neuro), and immunological processes in stress and illness
Evidence of Psychoneuroimmunology
-Tumor cells grow more rapidly in animals exposed to electric shock, loud noise, or other stressors
-Immunosuppression linked to divorce, unemployment, exam periods, occupational stress,
Direct Effect Hypothesis
Immunosuppresion is part of the body's natural response to stress, but the HPA and SAM responses may reduce the body's defenses
Indirect Effect Hypothesis
Immunosuppresion is an aftereffect of the stress response and stress may encourage maladapative behaviors that disrupt immune functioning
Allostatic load
Cumulative long-term effects of the body's physiological responses to stress
What are some ways stress reduces immunity?
1. Activating ANS
2. Triggering secretion of hormones to bind to white blood cells
3. Inducing poor diet/substance abuse behaviors
Transaction Model
Experience of stress depends on how much an event is appraised as it does on the event itself
Primary appraisal
Determination of an event's meaning
Secondary appraisal
Evaluation of one's ability to meet the demands of the challenging event
Cognitive reappraisal
Process by which events are constantly reevaluated
The Transaction Model of Stress
1. Potential Stressor
2. Primary Appraisal
3. Thought processes
4. Secondary Appraisal
5. Coping Response
6. Reappraisal
Diathesis-Stress Model
Individual's susceptibility to stress and illness determined by two interacting factors (Predisposing & Precipitating)
Predisposing Factors
Genetics & Acquired behaviors or personality traits
Precipitating Factors
Traumatic experiences
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Psychological disorder triggered by exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor and associated with combat or catastrophic environmental factors.
Psychological symptoms of PTSD
haunting memories, nightmares, mental distress flashbacks
Physiological Symptoms of PTSD
Increased cortisol, epinephrine, testosterone, and thyroxin over time
Comorbidity of PTSD
substance abuse, depression, anxiety disorder
Susceptibilty of PTSD
Those that lack a social support, women who experience harassment, Lower intelligence
Tend-and-Befriend Theory
Females are more likely than males to respond to stressors with behaviors that:
Quiet/Nurture/Care for offspring &
Establish and Maintain social networks
What are some sources of stress?
Chernobyl, Floods, Fires, Hurricanes,Daily Hassles, Daily Uplifts
What is linked with crowding?
Increased aggression, Withdrawal from interpersonal relationships, Increased crime rates, unwanted social interactions
What is burnout?
Job-related state of physical and psychological exhaustion