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27 Cards in this Set

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Sedimentary Rock
rock that forms at or near the surface of the earth by the precipitation of minerals from water solutions, by the growth of skeletal materials in organisms or by the cementing together of shell fragments or loose grains derived from pre-existing rock
Sediments/sedimentary rocks occur in the . . .
cover, or upper part of the crust, not in the basement
Types of weathering
physical, chemical
clastic sedimentary rocks
rock created from solid grains
big grain size, medium, tiny (give specific rock examples)
conglomerate, sandstone, shale
made up of animals who have shells of silica, not clastic
biochemical sedimentary rocks

give examples
rocks made from deceased organisms (particularly shells), many are carbonates

examples: fossiliferous limestone, micrite, chalk, biochemical chert, coal and oil shale (<-- organic rocks)
chemical sedimentary rocks
rock formed primarily by the precipitation of minerals out of water solutions
evaporites form . . .
1. closed basin
2. salt becomes concentrated
3. they reach saturation
4. precipitates right out of the water
evaporites examples
CaCO3- evaporitic limestone or travertine
CaSO4H4O- gypsum
NaCl- halite
salt deposits consists of . . ./if the sea evaporated entirely . . .
inner rung- halite (80%)
middle run- gypsum (13%)
outer rung- carbonates
Aral Sea
inland sea in Central Asia from which Stalin diverted water for agriculture, it is now mostly dried up
bedding plane
boundary between two beds in a strata
Patterns of different rock types in sedimentary environments offer us . . .
A record of geologic change
Sed. structure:
Ripples/ripple marks
-relatively small elongated ridges that form on a bed surface at right angles to the direction of the current flow
-asymmetric if: current flow is always in the same direction
-symmetric if: water is flowing back and forth, like waves along the shore
Sed structure:
internal laminations that are inclined at an angle to the boundary of the main sedimentary layer

cross beds form in aquatic environments
Sed structure:
Graded bedding

How are they formed?
a layer of sediment in which grain size varies from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top. formed by turbidity currents.
turbidity current
underwater landslide
Mud cracks
mud layer dried up after deposition, cracks in to roughly hexagonal plates that typically curl at their edges.

they later fill with sediment and are preserved.
Mountain stream environments
Fast moving water can carry large clasts. When water flow slows, larger clasts settle out to form gravel and boulder beds, while smaller sediments are carried on.

Deposits would include:
breccia (coarse, angular)
sandy channels in a broad, muddy floodplain
Alluvial Fan enviros
Found in arid regions, where a fast moving stream empties on to a plain. Deposits right at a mountain from.

Depositions would include:
gravel & sand
Delta enviro
where a river build a delta of sediment out in to the sea
Deep sea
and Reef/lagoon
Carbonate deposition
Deep sea- massive limestone and chert depositions
Reef/lagoon-carbonate clastics
dunes are . . .
giant ripple marks or can occur from wind
zone of leaching
where downward transport occurs

towards the top
zone of accumulation
where minerals pile up

towards the bottom
fold that is shaped like an overturned bowl