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84 Cards in this Set

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The ____ ____ ____ of the mesencephalon and upper pons function together with diencephalic nuclei to maintain an alert conscious state in the forebrain
rostral reticular formation
towards the face pg. 588
_____ cell bodies are located in the locus ceruleus and lateral tegmental area, targets the entire CNS and is responsible for alertness and mood elevation
also known as noradrenaline pg. 590
-------- is produced in the raphe nuclei , targets the entire CNS and is involved in mood elevation
receptors are 5HT1A-F, 5HT2A-C, 5HT3-7 pg. 590
Control of the level of consciousness involves these three processes ____, _____, _____.
alertness, attention and awareness
AAA pg. 591
The pontomesencephalic reticular formations projects to the _____ _____, which has connections with the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex, are important for maintaining normal alertness
thalamic intralaminar nuclei
part of the "bridal chamber" pg. 592
what is the major efferent neurotransmitter of the peripheral nervous system?
found in the neuromuscular junction, preganglionic autonomic synapses and postganglionic parasympathetic synapses pg. 593
the main cholinergic receptor types in the central nervous system are ____ and ____
muscarinic and nicotinic
"nicotine" gives off a "muscy" smell pg. 595
____ and ____ together are important in mood disorders such as depression, manic-depression and anxiety
norepinephrine and serotonin
produced in the locus ceruleus and the raphe nuclei pg. 597
The _______ reticular formation helps to carry out _______, _______, and ________ functions. B588
1.Caudal 2.motor, 3.reflex, and 4.autonomic functions.
The lower part of the reticular formation merges with the spinal cord which also helps transmit motor, reflex, and autonomic functions.
________ ________ _________ is used to describe pathways that emanate from a single region to innervate many structures or even the entire nervous system? B589
Widespread Projection System
Think of a radio station that transmits one signal, but is projected over a wide range.
What are the 3 major inputs of the pontomesencephalic reticular formation? B592
Sensory pathways, association cortex, and limbic cortex.
If you are driving home on "auto pilot" what could wake you up? Pain (sensory), realizing a car cut you off (frontoparietal association cortex), or hearing a sad song on the radio (limbic cortex).
Acetylcholine has two widespread projection systems. Where does each pathway start and end? What is the function of acetylcholine? B590: Table 14.2
1. Basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. 2. Pontomesencephalic region to the thalamus, cerebellum, pons, & medulla. Function = alertness & memory.
Decreased acetylcholine may be associated with memory decline in Alzheimer's disease. B595
Where does the norepinephrine widespread projection system start and end? What is its function? B590: Table 14.2 & 596
Pons (locus ceruleus and lateral tegmental area) to the entire CNS. Function = modulation of attention, sleep-wake states, alertness, mood elevation
Attention-deficit dx is often treated with meds to enhance norepinephrine transmission. Also, it increases in an awake state and decreases during sleep. B596-7
Serotonin has two widespread projection systems that both involve the raphe nuclei of the midbrain and pons. Where does each start and end? What is the function of each pathway? B597 & 590: Table 14.2
1. ROSTRAL raphe nuclei to the entire forebrain (cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia); function = mood elevation. 2. CAUDAL raphe nuclei to the cerebellum, medulla and spinal cord; function = pain modulation.
Since the raphe nuclei is in the brain stem serotonin can only travel up or down. Directional terms below the midbrain are: superior=rostral and inferior=caudal. It is best when your mood is up and your pain is down.
Where does the major histamine widespread projection system start and end? What is its function? B 597-8
Tubermammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus to the entire forebrain; function = alertness
Antihistamine medications used for allergies cause drowsiness by blocking CNS histamine receptors. B598
The regions on the medulla that promote sleep are the ____________ and the ______________.
medullary reticular formation and the nucleus solitarius
also known as "reticular substance" and the solitary nucleus. Pg. 599
What do GABAergic REM-on cells do during REM sleep?
inhibit norepinephrine release from thelocus ceruleus and lateral tegmental area, and inhibit serotonin release from the raphe nuclei.
inhibit NE and 5-HT pg. 599
Glutamatergic REM-on cells reduce muscle tone during REM sleep. How do they do this and where are the located?
they are located in the pontine reticular formation and they activate circuits which involve glycine in the medulla and spinal cord. This inhibits lower motor neurons, which decreases muscle tone.
they activate an inhibitory transmitter pg. 601
In a coma, _______________ is typically reduced by 50%.
Cerebral Metabolism
This reduction makes sense, considering of the lack of significant cortical functions during coma. Pg. 602
in some patients, akinetic mutism can be reversed by using __________________
dopaminergic agonists
an agonist for a neurotransmitter that affects arousal levels pg. 603
Akinetic mutism is an extreme form of ________________, which often results from frontal lobe lesions.
"without will" pg. 603
One way in which nonREM-on cells are located in the anterior hypothalamus and promote nonREM sleep by inhibiting ____________________ that project to the forebrain.
histaminergic activating systems
the activating system of an excitatory neurotransmitter pg. 599
The pituitary and hypothalamus form the link between what two systems?
Neural and endocrine systems.
These two areas communicate through synaptic transmission and utilize soluble hormone factors. Pg. 738
The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis in the body by interacting with and regulating what four systems?
Homeostatic mechanisms, Endocrine control, Autonomic control, and Limbic mechanisms.
Mnemonic: HEAL pg. 738
What are the homeostatic mechanisms that that hypothalamus controls?
Hunger, thirst, sexual desire, and the sleep-wake cycle.
These are all basic functions that we need to survive. pg. 738
mammillary bodies form what structure? B. 738
posterior hypothalamus
part of the diencephalon
The pituitary fossa is bounded by the ___ ___ ___ and the ___ ___ ___ B. 739
anterior clinoid process and the posterior clinoid process
form sella turcica
the lateral hypothalamus is important in ___ and the medial hypothalamus is important in___ ___ B. 742
appetite, inhibiting appetite
indulgence, will power
what structure activates mechanisms in heat dissipation? B. 743
anterior hypothalamus
this region can also cause hyperthermia
The anterior pituitary produces which six hormones? B. 743
adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone
ACTH simulates? B. 745
adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid hormones
A type of steroid
Growth hormone-secreting adenomas cause _____.
acromegaly z.747
is characterized by enlarge hands and feet, coarsened facial features and protuberant jaw.
in the ____ ____ ____ ____, excess ADH production causes a low serum sodium _______, together with inappropriately elevated urine osmolality
1. syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone or SIADH; 2.hyponatremia z. 749
1. can be caused by many non/neurological conditions including head trauma, meningitis, pulonmary disorders, med side effects
these symptoms describe what syndrome? 1. truncal obesity 2. increased facial hair 3. new onset acne 4. easily bruisability 5. excessive sweating 6. ruddiness and skin straie 7. amenorrhea 8. hypertension 9. iritability & depression 10. decreased energy 11. diffiuclty walking up stairs
cushing's syndrome z. 751
is caused by excess cortical production by the adrenal cortex; can also be caused by pitiutary or extrapituitary hypersecretion of ACTH or adrenal tumors
spontaneious hemorrhages of pituitary tumors is called ____ ____
pituitary apoplexy z. 750
panhypopituitarism is a common sequela of this
____ ____ ____ can be helpful to distinguish pituitary from non pituitary ACTH overproduction.
petrosal sinus sampling z. 748
this can often localize the side of the microadenoma not visible on MRI
What does the term "panhypopituitarism" mean? (B. Pg. 750)
A deficiency of all pituitary hormones.
It "pans" across all the hormones in the pituitary gland.
What is a "pituitary adenoma" ? (B. Pg. 746)
A slow growing benign tumor arising from glandular epithelial cells in the anterior pituitary.
This type of tumor often secretes hormones in excess of normal levels.
Which adenoma causes Cushing's disease (B. Pg. 747)
ACTH-secreting adenoma.
Remember that pituitary adenomas often produce hormone levels that are not normal.
The _____ _____ _____ stimulates the thyroid gland to produce _____ and ____________. (B. Pg. 746)
1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 2. thyroxine 3. triiodothyronine.
These hormones promote cellular metabolism.
What type of adenoma often causes hypogonadism and infertility? (B. Pg. 749)
LH or FSH-secreting adenomas
These two hormones are necessary for reproduction.
Deficiency of which pituitary hormone can cause polyuria (the passage of large volumes of urine in a 24 hour period), polydipsia ("many" "thirst") and excessive thirst? (B. Pg. 754-755)
Deficiency of Antidiuretic Hormone (Vassopressin).
The hormone is regulates body's retention of water and is released by the posterior pituitary.
Deficiency of which pituitary hormone can cause cold intolerance? (B. Pg. 754-755)
Deficiency of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.
Promotes cellular metabolism.
Where is Antidiuretic Hormone produced? (B. Pg. 753)
It is produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.
These two hypothalamic nuclei can be found in the anterior region of the hypothalamus.
Name some causes of coma.
head trauma, brainstem, ischemia, anoxia, intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus
many conditions we have discussed in class pg. 604
Name 5 neurotransmitters located in the projection systems
Histamine, Acetylcholine,serotonin, Norepinephrine, dopamine
HANDS pg. 590
What are the steriod hormones aldosterone and cortisol important for?
blood pressure, electrolyte, balances, glucose mobilizatin
B-E-G pg. 745
What hormone is responsible for uterine contractions, and contractions for breast milk
Prolactin is only for milk production pg. 745
One function of histamine?
Day cold medicine
Table 14.2
Certain regions of the ________ may also play a role in nonREM sleep.
Figure 14.15
Name 2 pituitary hormones?
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Growth Hormone (GH)
Table 17.2
Neurotransmitter receptor of reticular formation?
Unknown (maybe glutamate)
Table 14.2
Main target of histamine?
Entire brain
Table 14.2
__________ and __________ are released by the posterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Feel good hormone and kidney water retention or (ADH)
Figure 17.6
Name two anterior pituitary hormones?
Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Table 17.2
Name the four basic functions of the limbic system
1. Homeostatic functions including autonomic and neuroendocrine control 2. Olfaction 3. Memory 4. Emotions and Drives
mnemonic: HOME pg. 762
Name the key structures that correspond with each limbic function.
Olfaction: Olfactory Cortex, Memory: Hippocampal formation, Emotions and Drives: Amygdala, Homeostasis: Hypothalamus
primary structures of HOME pg. 763
What are the regions of the limbic cortex?
the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the medial orbitofrontal gyri, the temporal poles, and the anterior insular cortex
gyri visible from the a medial view pg. 763
Where is the hippocampal formation located and what role does it play in the limbic system?
It is buried within the medial temporal lobe, forming the floor of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Plays an improtant role in memory functions of the limbic system.
located within the lobe associated with auditory processing pg. 763
What are the classifications of the cerebral cortex?
neocortex, mesocortex, allocortex with 2 subdivisions: archicortex and paleocortex, and corticoid areas
"new" cortex, "middle" cortex, "other" cortex, "first" cortex, "old" cortex pg. 766
What are the three main nuclei of the amygdala?
corticomedial, basolateral, and central nuclei
names refer to location of nuclei pg. 768
Limbic inputs to the basal ganglia arrive at the ventral ________ and _________ ________ and then are relayed via the _______ ________ to the mediodorsal nucleus.
Limbic inputs to the basal ganglia arrive at the VENTRAL STRIATUM and NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS and then are relayed via the VENTRAL PALLIDUM to the mediodorsal nucleus.
basil ganglia structure made up of the caudate and the putamen pg. 768
The _______ ________ contains cholinergic neurons that provide the major cholinergic innervation for the entire cerebral cortex.
nucleus basalis
primary nucleus of the basal forebrain pg. 768
What are the main nuclei of the septal region and what are their functions?
medial septal nucleus: priamry output- projects to the hippocampal formation, lateral septal nucleaus: receives input from the hippocampal formation
"middle" and "side" nuclei pg.768
The structures of the limbic system are located primarily in the______ and ______regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Medial, Ventral
Think of middle and lower pg. 762
What is the key structure in memory?
Hippocampal formation
pg. 763
What is the key structure in homeostasis?
This stucture is anterior to the thalamus pg. 763
Emotions and drives are regulated by the ________.
Located in the aneromedial temporal lobe pg. 763
The hippocampal formation has ___ layers and is called _________.
3, archicortex
"archi" cortex stands for "first" pg. 764
Limbic imputs to the basal ganglia arrive at the________ and ________.
ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens
Think of lower striatum pg. 768
The structures of the ________ ________ lie just anterior and lateral to the hypothalams, at the base of the frontal lobes.
Basal forebrain
pg. 768
Name 4 of the main components of the limbic system.
Limbic cortex, hippocampal formation, amygdala, olfactory cortex, diencephalon, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, septal nuclei, brainstem.
One of these is named for its almond shape; another consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. (B, p. 762)
Name 2 structures in the limbic system that the brainstem connects with.
Hippocampal formation, basal ganglia, septal area and basal forebrain, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Remember the lower thalamus and the “robins’ eggs.” (B. p. 762)
Name 2 structures that the limbic cortex connects with.
Olfactory cortex, septal area and basal forebrain, amygdala, thalamus/epithalamus, hippocampal formation, and basal ganglia.
One of these regions has to do with the sense of smell; another is known as the “grand central station” of the brain. (B. p. 762)
This term is also known as the limbic cortex.
Forms gradual transition between 3 and 6-layered cortex. (B. p. 766)
In the adult sleep cycle, how many stages exist and name some of them?
There are 5 sleep cycles numbered as stages 1 through 5 .
"Counting sheep was cool until I was 5.
What does REM stand for and what usually happens during this stage of sleep?
Rapid Eye Movement ( which dreaming typically happens during this stage,)
The music group REM usually makes my eyes roll into the back of my head and puts me to sleep B p. 598
What is polysomnographic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters.
Process of recording and score basing sleeping stages which include EEG, extraocular movement, body movement, muscle tone, and respirations.
"While I am sleeping my brain waves move fast, just like my eyes and body. Sometimes my muscles tone is different I sure hope I am breathing while I sleep.
Adenosine neurotransmitters are located in both ___________, and the _____________. The effects of adenosine are generally ____________.
Thalami, Cortex, and
adenosine is the neurotransmitter system affected by coffee
Manifestations of _____________________ of any cause include lethargy, depression, cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, hair loss, and smooth dry skin.
a lack of a hormone stimulated by TSH. p749
Nervousness, insomnia, sometimes mania and/or dementia in the elderly, weight loss, increased sweating, dyskinesias, and tremor can be caused by ________________________.
can be caused either by complete suppression of TSH or elevation of TSH. p748
___________________ is a global confusional state along the continuum of impaired alertness.
also along the continuum is dementia. p603
What is meant by status epilepticus?
continuous seizure activity
the state of having "an epileptic fit" p.603
Name disorders that can cause a pseudocoma
catatonia, dissociative states from severe emotional trauma, somatiform disorders such as conversion disorder or somatization disorder or factitious disorder p.604
five of them