Central Nervous System (CNS)

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1. Distinguish between afferent and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are the sensory nerves. They carry information from the world to the brain and spinal cord. Efferent nerves are the motor nerves they carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. Afferent nerves take in information and efferent nerves carry out information.
2. Study Figure 2.1. What makes up the Central Nervous System (CNS)? The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
3. When you accidentally touch a hot burner on a stove, which part of your nervous system carries the pain message from your skin to your brain? The somatic nervous system. This system carries information from your skin and muscles to your spinal cord.
4. The physiological arousal that you feel as you enter a classroom to
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Researchers have identified at least 50 neurotransmitters in the brain. List and describe the function of the 7 listed in your text. The seven neurotransmitters listed are Acetylcholine, GABA, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphins, and Oxytocin. Acetylcholine stimulates the firing of neurons and associated with learning, the action of muscles, and memory. GABA keeps neurons from firing and it helps control the precision of the signal being carried from one neuron to the next. Norepinephrine stimulates the firing of neurons in the central nervous system and it helps control alertness. It also excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. Dopamine plays a role in helping to control voluntary movement, sleep, mood, attention,learning, and the ability to identify rewards. Serotonin is involved with the regulation of sleep, mood and attention. Endorphins stimulate the firing of endorphins and defend the body against pain and promote feeling of pleasure. For example if you were in a severe accident your endorphin levels would raise and you feel less pain. Oxytocin helps you experience love and social

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