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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The earliest paintings known to mankind are ____ _________ located in ______, ______, and ____
cave paintings; Africa, Europe, and Asia
The first civilizations to create art forms were in _____, located in ___________
Sumer; Mesopotamia
The Sumerians invented _______, created __________ __ _____, and made _________ _______ ___________
writing; sculptures of stone; beautiful musical instruments
Western art was the first style of art depicting the _____ ____
human form
The second greatest civilization was _______ _____
Ancient Egypt
These early cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt influenced later ones around _____________ ___, ______, and the ______ ______
Mediterranean Sea, Europe, and the United States
The art of these later cultures is what we called Western art because it developed in _______ ______
Western Europe
At the caves at Lascaux, the earliest paintings date from around ______ __
15,000 BC
The __________ _________ __ _______ at Lascaux are very unusual
polychrome paintings of animals
At the caves at Lascaux, colors were made from _______ _____ ____ (red, yellow, brown, violet) and ________ (____) from the _____ used in the caves
lampblack (soot); lamps
________, not ancient cave paintings may be the oldest forms of art
Carvings of ______ _______ have been discovered in many places in Europe and Western Asia
female figures
Roman goddess of love. A generic name given to many female figures in art
The Austrian village near the place of discovery in 1908
Venus of Willendorf is _ __ inches tall and _____ years old
4 3/8; 25,000
The Venus of Willendorf figure suggests ________ _________ and a _________ ______ __ ____
abundant fertility and a plentiful supply of food
People lived in simple structures of _____, ___-_____, and even _____. Protection of enmities was often provided by _____ around the settlement
grass, mud-bricks, and even stone; walls
A town of mud-brick in southern Israel, that dates back from 8000 BC (world's oldest city)
Stonehenge was constructed about ____-____ __
3000-2000 BC
round grouping
Stonehenge was a round grouping or cromlech of gigantic stones, some weighing _____ ____ and were dragged for more than 20 miles to be trimmed and stood on end
fifty tons
horizontal elements
The lintels, or horizontal elements, were curved slightly to fit the ________ ____
circular plan
Apparently a ritual site, Stonehenge was constructed to indicate the _________ and ________ of the calendar year, and probably the times for ________, _______, and _________ __________
solstices and equinoxes; planting, harvest, and religious ceremonies
It is unknown who built Stonehenge, but the ______ people probably added to it around 2000 BC
___________ has flat and fertile land which lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
_________ dominated Mesopotamia for over 1000 years
The Sumerians constructed huge mountains of earth faced with mudbrick and sometimes fried brick. These structures were known as _________
Characteristics of ziggurats:
rubble filled inside- solid stepped, 2-7 tiers, used for religious rites, center of the city
main room
________ complexes were designed to make the worshiper go around as many corners as possible before reaching the cella, or main room
Mesopotamia sculpture has the following characteristics:
- Mostly represent gods
- Made of clay, wood, some stones, shells, metals
- Large eyes- believed they were the windows to the soul
- Based on the cylinder and cone
- Expressionless
- No articulation
- Frontal
Mesopotamia had good ____ ____
gold work
___ ______ _________ developed in Mesopotamia culture
Bas relief sculpture
Egyptian art and architecture reflect a strong belief on the _________ as well as the illustration of mighty power of the ______
afterlife; rulers
From the earliest times, Egyptian ____________ were honored and their products admired
__________ ________ allows Egyptian art and culture to remain constant for several thousand years
Geographic isolation
Strongly held belief in afterlife helps _________ ______ __ ___ ___ _____
stimulate growth of all art forms
_______ evolves as elaborate tomb for Pharaohs
The first pyramids were constructed as successors to the low rectangular tombs, called _______, built for the Pre-Dynastic kings
_______ , who is the first artist in history whose name is known, built a solid stone structure of six huge steps rising over twenty stories in the desert air
solid stone structure of six huge steps rising over twenty stories in the desert air
step pyramid
Pyramid building reached a climax in the ______ _______ when the three Great Pyramids at Giza were constructed
Fourth Dynasty
Some stones weighed over __ ____. Required tremendous organization and planning
40 tons
Pyramids cover __ acres
Many pyramids surround the _____ _____ ________
three Great Pyramids
The Great Pyramids were all guarded by the _____ _____, a figure 240 feet in length, carved from rocky ledge. Had a body of a ____ and head of _______, it sat with great majesty for centuries, but was later damaged by vandalism and the sandblasting winds of the Sahara.
Great Sphinx; lion; Chefren
The ______ ________ are located right at the heart of the pyramids
burial chambers
The walls were covered with _______ ______ __________ showing various activities of the persons buried there
painted relief sculptures
Three types of statues unearthed in and near the Great Pyramids:
standing, seated, and sitting on the floor
Statutes are often _______, figures are facing and looking straight ahead and are stylized
The princes of ______ finally grew powerful enough to establish a comparatively peaceful rule that lasted for two dynasties
Architecture shifted from pyramids to the constructing of ________ _______
funerary temples
The temples were designed to hold _______ of the rulers and were constructed so that part was cut into the cliff and part was built outside
Art continued to flourish in the Middle Kingdom, with ____________ still holding an honored position in society
Craftspeople carved wood into _______, _____, _______, and _____ _____
figures, boats, weapons, and other items
The carvings were painted to create an ________ __ _______
illusion of reality
After the Middle Kingdom (___ ______ ____________ ______), Egypt was invaded and ruled by outsiders for ___ ______
The Second Intermediate Period; 150 years
The outsiders introduced things such as the _____, ________, ______, and _______ __ ___
horse, chariots, wheels, and weapons of war
About 1567 BC, the princes of Thebes overthrew these invaders and established the ___ _______
New Kingdom
The New Kingdom (began the 18th dynasty) was a ______ ___ in Egypt's history
golden age
Not only did the kingdom flourish, but artists and architects grew in _____ and ________ __________
skill and creative expression
One of the outstanding architectural works to survive is the ________ ______ __ _____ __________
funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut
During the 18th Dynasty, temples were created specifically for the _______ __ ____ and the ____ __ ______
worship of gods and the homes of priests
Among the greatest was the ______ __ ____ __ ______
Temple of Amun at Karnak
The Temple of Amun at Karnak is a huge complex of buildings including ______, or entrance ways, courtyards, a hypostyle hall and minor halls, chambers, and passages
The _________ ____ was the most dramatic structure, consisting of 125 columns that created forest-like feeling
hypostyle hall
Many huge _______ and _________ were rebuilt during the New Kingdom, but other arts also flourished
temples and complexes
The __________ _______ is a painted papyrus that reveals some important characteristics of Egyptian art in all ages
Greenfield Papyrus
The Greenfield Papyrus drawing is _________ and ___________ ____
sensitive and beautifully done
The figures are placed in registers (layers) and many of the gods are in the form of _______
___________ ___________ is also used in the Greenfield Papyrus drawing. This means that the more important figures are shown larger than the less important ones
Descriptive perspective
The careful design of placement and design of figures to fill almost all available space is also ______________ of Egyptian painting and wall sculpture
___________ characterizes most of Egypt's art. However, during the 18th dynasty, (reign of Akhenaton) _______ became dominant
Stylization; realism
Akhenaton's successor was ___________
King Tut ruled for nine years and is one of Egypt's most famous kings because of:
the wealth of art objects found in his tomb
With the end of the 18the dynasty, art again returned to ___________ ___________
traditional stylization
______ __ ruled for 67 years an had a multitude of statues of himself
Ramses II
His temple at ___ ______ is the most famous. Four figures of Ramses are carved directly out of the standing cliff. The temple itself recedes into the stone wall. Descriptive perspective is used
Abi Simbel