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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 Outcomes of "in-group" status
1. Less turn over
2. Higher performance
3. Greater commitment
4. Greater participation
5. Higher satisfaction
Life Cycle Model has 3 stages of lead-subordinate relationship development
Stage 1: Stranger Phase
-Low LMX
-Economic exchange
Stage 2: Aquaintance phase
-Limited LMX
-Testing period
Stage 3: Mature Partnership
-High LMX
-Social exchange "partnership"
What was the latest update in 1995?
More prescriptive than descriptive
What is the "romance" of leadership?
People have a tendency to overestimate the contributions of the leader or group or organizational performance.
ex. The President, the Lakers
Two main contributors to follower ship patterns/dimensions
Kelly & Hollander
What are the 5 folllower-ship patterns?
1. Alienated followers (Independent/Passive)
2. Survivor (middle)
3. Sheep (Dependent/Passive)
4. Yes people (Dependent/Active)
5. Effective Followers (Independent/Active)
Definition of a group?
A collection of two or more interacting individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being a group.
Four key characteristics of a group?
1. Social Interaction
2. Stability
3. Common Interests or goals
4. Recognition as being a group
Factors influencing group effectiveness
1. Member commitment
2. Member skills & role clarity
3. Internal organization & coordination
4. External coordination
5. Resources & political support
6. Cooporation, coohesiveness & groupthink
7. Collective efficacy
8. Shared mental models
9. Member diversity
Additional factors in 3 parts?
1. Group size
2. Status differentials
3. Emotional maturity
Advantages of diversity groups?
1. Multiple perspectives
2. Openness to new ideas
3. Increased creativity
4. Increased flexibility
5. Increased problem solving skills
Disadvantages of diversity groups?
1. Ambiguity
2. Complexity
3. Confusion
4. Miscommunication
5. Reaching agreements
1 category of leadership functions in groups is called task oriented behavior consisting of 5 things?
1. Process structuring
2. Stimulating communication
3. clarifying communication
4. summarizing
5. consensus testing
2nd category of leadership functions in groups is called group-maintenance behavior
1. Gatekeeping (make sure everyone is participating)
2. harmonizing
3. Supporting
4. Standard setting
5. Process analyzing
Main idea of and key differences between groups and teams
All teams are groups; not all groups are teams
What are included in cross functional teams?
Includes representatives from multiple functional subunits
-Members responsible to team and to functional area
-Results in matrix organization
PURPOSE: plan/conduct complex activity that affects all involved parties
usually has appointed a leader
What benefits and challenges come with cross functional teams?
Benefits: Better, more creative problem solving
improved coordination
members learn new perspectives and skills
Challenges: Communication difficulties
Loyalties to functional areas
What is included in self-managed teams, advantages and challenges?
Responsible for producing productive/service
Set-up by organization, but operations determined within team
Advantages are:
higher quality of work
higher morale
opportunities for cross-training
lower costs (cutting out management roles)
difficult to implement
What is the definition of a trait?
Any number of individual attributes that include values, personality, needs, temperament, or motives.
What is the definition of a skill and three categories of skills?
Skill: The ability to do something in an effective manner
1. Technical-specific activity
2. Interpersonal-Effectively interacting with other people
3. Conceptual-analytical thinking
What are the 4 decision making roles?
1. Entrepreneur
2. Disturbance handler
3. Resource Allocator
4. Negotiator
What does Stogdill's review conclude?
There is no evidence for universal traits that you need to be a leader-100 studies in 1948, in 1950 150-160 studies
What does TAT stand for?
Thematic Apperception Test
What are the 3 motives to managerial motivation?
1. Need for power(nAff)
2. Need for achievement (nAch)-high levels
2. Need for affiliation (nAff)-low levels
Big Five Personality (Ocean) dimensions
1. Openness to Experience
2. Conscientiousness
3. Extraversion
4. Agreeableness
5. Neuroticism
Key traits of leadership
1. High energy level & stress tolerance
2. Self-Confidence
3. Internal locus of control
4. Emotional stability & maturity
5. Personal integrity
6. Power motivation
7. Achievement motivation
8. Need for affiliation
9. Narcissim
What is the name of the personal who thought of managerial motivation?
Five components and who creates emotional intelligence and the dimensions?
who: Goleman
1. Self-awareness
2. Self-regulation
3. Motivation
4. Empathy
5. Social Skill**
Strengths of the trait approach
1. inuitively appealing
2. long history of research
3. deeper understanding of leader aspect of leadership
4. possible uses in selection
weaknesses of the trait approach
1. no definitive list of traits
2. failure to account for situations
3. traits can be too abstract to be useful
4. failure to relate to leader outcomes
5. not useful for training and development
Ohio state leadership studies
Blake & Mouton developed the influential early questionnaire research
LBDQ (leader behavior description questionaire) development
goal: the measure what leaders do
1. consideration
2. initiating structure
no consistent results
concern for people and concern for production
What does TRC leadership theory stand for?
1. Task
2. Relationship
3. Change
Country club
high concern for people-low concern for production
Team Management
High concern for people-high concern for production
Impoverished management
low concern for people-low concern for production
Task management
low concern for people-high concern for production
Definition of contingency model
Any of several theories that recognize that certain styles of leadership are more effective in some situations than in others
Yukl's four varieties of participation?
1. Autocratic
2. Consultation
3. Joint Decisions
4. Delegation
Pros of participation?
1. Greater decision quality
-pooling of resources
-specialization of labor
-diversity of perspectives
2. Greater decision acceptance
3. Satisfaction with process
4. Higher commitment to decision
5. Team Building
6. Skill building
Cons of participation?
1. More time
2. Potential conflict
3. Dominant members
4. Suboptimal compromise
5. Group think
Three categories of situational variables?
1. Subordinate characteristics
• - example: indifference towards rewards
2. Task characteristics
• - example: structured, routine task
3. Group or Organization characteristics
• - example: cohesive work group
What are the 3 leadership styles by Lewin, Lippitt & White?
1. Autocratic
2. Democratic
3. Laissez Faire
Common themes in leadership definition?
• Leadership is a interactive process

• Leadership involves influence

• Leadership occurs in groups

• Leadership includes attention to goals
Which of the following people developed a contingency theory?
1. Hershey & Blanchard
3. Kerr & Jermier