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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between a one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional view of power?
1D-Power held by power elite; breaking the rules of the game
2D-Power to decide what gets decided, subordinate groups may not try to challenge
3D-Power by persuasion, power always involves behavior
What is pluralism?
A theory of how democracies work that argues that as long as competing groups have sufficient power to participate, the final outcome of any policy or political controversy will reflect the general preferences of the society as a whole.
What is the power-elite?
An idea associated with C. Wright Mills, who wrote a book by the title in 1956 that argues that a small group of people, drawn from similar backgrounds and sharing broadly similar world views, dominates the upper levels of U.S. Institutions and shapes the policies of the federal government.
What is the "State"?
All of the agencies and offices of government. It is a term that is meant to capture those more permanent features of the system of government than the current leaders of the government.
How do states regulate the economy?
Laws prevent large corp. from driving smaller out, insider trading, false advertising, unsafe working environments, blocking of compensation for innocent third parties when corporate actions cause harm.
What is a welfare state?
The bundle of programs that provide social insurance and social assistance for people falling into one or another category with some programs providing "universal" benefits to everyone and other providing benefits based on individual means. Ex. Old age pensions, unemployment, job training.
What is a democracy?
A concept with multiple meanings, all of which concern the ability of people to exert direct control over their leaders.
What is a progressive income tax system?
A system in which tax rates are higher on richer people than poorer people, with the idea being that it is fairer to ask those who can afford to pay more to do so.
What do tax policies tell us about how power is distributed in the US?
Progressive Income tax system, Income from super rich and wealthy is given to poorer. Many loop holes.
What is public policy?
Adopted or implemented by the government for foreign governments, and to address social problems or issues inside the country.
What is a social problem?
a term used to capture a wide range of individual group or societal behaviors that are thought to have harmful consequences. Ex. Drug abuse, inequality, sexism.
What is a political action committee (PAC)?
A term used in U.S. politics to describe an organization set up to collect political donations from individuals, corporations or unions to influence political and electoral outcomes
Why are there only two parties in the U.S. System?
Electoral system established by constitution makes it virtually impossible for a third party because of lack of proportional representation.
What is social stratification?
a subfield of sociology that examines inequalities among individuals and groups
What is the difference between income and wealth?
Income is the receipt of money or goods over a particular accounting period
Wealth is the net value of assets owned by individuals or family, real estates, and net financial assets.
What is class analysis?
the Study of society focused on class, or changes in the system of class inequality. Emphasis is placed on examining how, when, and where peoples actions and beliefs are influenced by their economic position.
What is Karl Marx's concept of class (conflict theory)?
Single, critical division between two classes as a result of the economic class.
What components make up socioeconomic Status (SES)?
A broad definition of a persons social class based on components such as education, income, and occupation.
What are four reasons why economic inequality has increased in the U.S. Since the 1960s?
Health, Exposure to crime and violence, exposure to enviornmental health risks, general level of happiness.
What is intragenerational social mobility?
Ability of a specific individual to move up or down the ladder within her lifetime
What is intergenerational social mobility?
Movement within or between social classes and occupations, the one generation to the next.
What factors influence how much mobility there is in society?
Societies with more opportunities for upward mobility have less inequality.
What is meritocracy?
A system where rewards and positions are distributed by ability, not social background or personal connections
What is the feminization of poverty?
Women represent disproportionate percentages of the worlds poor.
What does AFDC and TANF stand for and why are they different?
Aid to families with dependent children and Temporary Assistence for needy families
* Many difference are eligibility requirements are more strict and families can remain on the program for only a maximum of fiver years in there lifetime for TANF.
What is absolute poverty?
A measure of the minimum requirements needed for people to have basic standards of food, clothing, health, and shelter. Any individual or family falling below this fixed measure is defined as living in poverty.
What is relative poverty?
A term used to define people as poor not by assessing whether their resources are sufficient to obtain basic social necessities but rather by comparing their incomes relative to other people in society.
What is the definition of race?
A system for classifying people who are believed to share common descent, based on perceived innate physical similarities.
What is the definition of ethnicity?
A system for classifying people who are believed to share common descent, based on perceived cultural similarities.
Why is race described as a social construct?
No society is "pure" and people tend to rank themselves.
What is a minority?
The smaller number or part.
What is assimilation?
The process by which immigrants come to be incorporated into their new society by taking on the cultural tastes and practices of the new society.
What is institutional prejudice and discrimination?
Occurs when the actions or policies of organizations or social institutions exclude, disadvantage, or harm members of particular groups.
What is racism?
The term is used to encompass both prejudice and discrimination by individuals and institutions as well as macro level ideologies and structural forces that fundamental shape and are shaped by racially hierarchal societies.
What is the difference between prejudice and stereotypes?
Stereotypes are assumed characteristics and Prejudice is a preferring one kind of person over another.
What is affirmative action?
Government policies regarding employment and education that seek to increase the representation of minorities and women in fields from which they have historically been excluded.
What is the difference between sex and Gender?
Sex is male and female, Gender is masculine and feminine. Sex is biological, Gender is how society sees you.
What is meant by the "social construction of gender"?
The Social processes that create and sustain gender differences and gender inequality.
What is patriarchy?
A gender system in which men have substantially more power than women in politics, the economy and the family.
What is transgendered?
Individuals who were assigned one sex category at birth based on anatomical criteria but who come to believe they belong in the other sex or gender category and take action be in the other category.
Why does gender stratification occur in the US?
Refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between the sexes.
What is the glass ceiling, glass escalator, maternal wall and sticky floor?
GS: Social forces prevent women from reaching top of corporate ladder
SF: Social forces keep a majority of women in the lowest paying jobs
GE: Push males up ladder into female dominate positions
MW: Stems from what mothers are like and how they should behave.
What is sexual orientation?
Whether one's sexual attractions are to members of the same sex, the other sex, or both.
What do we mean by a double standard of sexuality?
Judging women more harshly than men for having sex outside of marriage or outside of relationships.
What is a sexual minority?
A group whose sexual behavior or attractions are unusual in a given society. THose who are homosexual, bisexual, or transgendered are sexual Minorities.
What is heteronormativity?
A situation in which individuals get the message from culture and institutions that everyone is heterosexual or that ring heterosexual is the only option.
What is heterosexism?
Discrimination or bias against persons because they are not heterosexual.
What is a Kinship Family?
The social links and boundaries defined by biology and social custom, that establish who is related to whom.
What is an extended family?
Family that extends beyond the nuclear family.
What is a nuclear family?
A term used to describe a family consisting of a husband and wife and their children.
What is monogamy?
The practice of marriage of one individual to only one other individual.
What is polygamy?
The practice of marriage of one individual to two or more other individuals.
What is polygny?
One male and two or more females.
What is polyandry?
One female and two or more males.
What is a serial relationship?
A pattern of having repeated, short-term intimate relationships with other adults.
What are the classifications of child abuse?
neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse.
How do structural functionalism, Social conflict, and symbolic interactionism view the family?
SF: Structure stabilizes family
SC: Powerful families vs. poor
SI:Family as a unit of interacting personalities
What is religion?
The social institution involving the beliefs and practices based upon a conception of the sacred.
How do sociologists study religion?
Investigate social consequences of religious activity and do not asses the validity of religious doctrine.
What is the difference between the sacred and the profane?
Sacred refers to that which is defined as extraordinary, inspiring a send of awe
Profane consists of ordinary elements of everyday life
What are the types of religious organizations?
Church: well integrated
Sect: stands part from society
Cult: substantially outside society
How do different types of societies (hunting and gathering, pastoral, etc) view religion?
Hunting and gathering embrace animisim (natural world are life forms)
Pastoral saw the rise in a belief in a single divine power.
What are the four types of evolving religions and what are their components?
Secularization (decline in supernatural),
Civil Religion (Involves a range of rituals),
Spirituality (Spiritual development outside religious organizations) , Fundamentalism (take the words of sacred texts literally)
What are the four characteristics of social change?
Society is always changing, rate varies, intentionality varies, importance of individual changes varies
What is collective behavior?
Individuals converge creating a group or crowd and embark on actions
What is the difference between contagion and emergent norm theory?
CT: Suggets that when people come together a unified crowd or mob mentality results.
ENT: Collective behavior is not uniform
What are the three forms of collective behavior?
Crowd behavior
Mass Behavior
Social Movements
What are the elements of crowd behavior?
Crowds form when large groups of people come together-can turn into riots
What are the three forms of mass behavior?
Fashion, Fads, Social dilemna
What are the two types of social dilemmas?
Tragedy of the commons, public goods dilemma
What is a social movement?
Collective action aimed at bringing about some kind of change in society. It does not necessarily have to involve formal organizations, although movements often do evolve into one or more formal organizations.
What is modernity?
The quality of being current or of the present
What is mass society theory?
Assumes people join social movements not because of ideals but to satisfy psychological need to belong to something larger than themselves
What is the relative deprivation theory?
Focuses on the actions of oppressed groups who seek rights or opportunities already enjoyed by others in society
How does technology impact social change?
Creation of a virtual community, creates cultural diffusion