• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tunica albuginea
Capsule that surrounds each testis, made of connective tissue
Extensions of the capsule that extend into the testis and divide it into lobules, made of connective tissue
Seminiferous tubules
1-4 found in each testis lobule, tightly coiled structures, forms sperm
Rete testis
Receive sperms and send to the epididymis
Interstitial cells in the seminiferous tubules
Produce testosterone
Epididymis structure
Comma-shaped, tightly coiled tube, Found on the superior part of the testis and along the posterior lateral side
Epididymis function
Mature and store sperm cells
How does sperm move from the epididymis into the ductus deferens?
Smooth muscle contractions
Ductus deferens function
Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
How does the ductus deferens move sperm?
Spermatic cord
Ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves in a connective tissue sheath
Smooth muscle in the walls of the ductus deferens create peristaltic waves to squeeze sperm forward
Where does sperm enter the urethra from?
Ejaculatory duct
Prostatic urethra
Surrounded by prostate
Membranous urethra
Travels from prostatic urethra to penis
Spongy (penile) urethra
Runs the length of the penis
Seminal Vesicles
Produces a thick, yellowish secretion (60 percent of semen)
Secretes a milky fluid which
helps to activate sperm,
Enters the urethra through several small ducts
Bulbourethral Glands
Produces a thick, clear mucus, cleanses the urethra of acidic urine prior to ejaculation, serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse, neutralizes pH of vagina
Accessory organs
Seminal vesicles
Bulbourethral glands
Advantages of accessory gland secretions
Fructose provides energy for sperm cells, Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidic environment of vagina,
Anti-bacterial properties,
Elements of semen enhance sperm motility
Mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions
Divided sac of skin outside the abdomen, Maintains testes at 3°C lower than normal body temperature to protect sperm viability
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
Seminiferous tubules
Stem cells
Type A daughter cell
One cell produced is a stem cell during spermatogonia division
Type B daughter cell
Primary spermatocyte formed during spermatogonia division
One primary spermatocyte formed during spermatogonia produces what? How?
Four haploid spermatids through meiosis
What is a mature spermatid called?
A sperm cell
Production of sperm cells
Maturation of spermatids
Head of a mature sperm cell
Contains DNA, breaks down and releases enzymes to help the sperm penetrate an egg
Midpiece of a mature sperm cell
Wrapped by mitochondria for ATP generation
“helmet” on the nucleus of a sperm, similar to a large lysosome
Testosterone production
Begins at puberty by interstitial cells which are activated by LH
Testosterone function
Stimulates reproductive organ development, Underlies sex drive, Causes secondary sex characteristics
Ovarian follicles
Sac like structures composing the ovaries
Immature egg
Follicular cells
Surround the oocyte
Primary follicle
Contains an immature oocyte
Graafian (vesicular) follicle
Growing follicle with a maturing oocyte
When the egg is mature, the follicle ruptures; occurs about every 28 days
Corpus luteum
The ruptured follicle
Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes function
Receive the ovulated oocyte,
Provide a site for fertilization,
Attach to the uterus
Finger-like projections at the distal end of the uterine tube,
Receive the oocyte from the ovary
Cilia in the uterine tubes
Slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus (takes 3 to 4 days)
Functions of the uterus
Receives a fertilized egg
Retains the fertilized egg
Nourishes the fertilized egg
Inner layer of uterus, Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg,
Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)
Middle layer of smooth muscle
Outermost serous layer of the uterus
Mons Pubis
Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis,
Covered with pubic hair after puberty
Labia majora
Hair-covered skin folds
Enclose the labia minora
Also encloses the vestibule
Labia minora
Delicate, hair-free folds of skin
Enclosed by labia majora,
Contains external openings of the urethra and vagina
Greater vestibular glands
One is found on each side of the vagina, Secretes lubricant during intercourse
The clitoris is similar to the penis in that it is
Hooded by a prepuce,
Composed of sensitive erectile tissue,
Becomes swollen with blood during sexual excitement
Female stem cells found in a developing fetus
Primary oocytes
Formed by oogonia after mitosis, Surrounded by cells that form primary follicles in the ovary
Meiosis in males
Produces four functional sperm
Meiosis in females
Produces one functional ovum and three polar bodies
How is the uterine cycle regulated?
By cyclic production of estrogens and progesterone
How are estrogen and progesterone regulated?
FSH and LH regulate the production of estrogens and progesterone
Menstrual phase of uterine cycle
Days 1 to 5,
Functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed,
Bleeding occurs for 3 to 5 days
Proliferative stage of uterine cycle
Days 6 to 14,
Regeneration of endometrium,
Estrogen levels rise,
Ovulation occurs in the ovary at the end of this stage
Secretory stage of uterine cycle
Days 15 to 28,
Levels of progesterone rise and increase the blood supply to the endometrium,
Endometrium increases in size and readies for implantation
What happens if fertilization occurs during the secretory stage?
Embryo produces a hormone that causes the corpus luteum to continue producing its hormones
What happens if fertilization does not occur during the secretory stage?
Corpus luteum degenerates as LH blood levels decline
LH surge
Causes ovulation
Follicular cells
Produce estrogen and progesterone
Function of estrogen
Cause secondary sex characteristics:
Enlargement of accessory organs of the female reproductive system,
Development of breasts,
Appearance of axillary and pubic hair,
Increase in fat beneath the skin, particularly in hips and breasts,
Widening and lightening of the pelvis,
Onset of menses (menstrual cycle)
How is progesterone produced?
By the corpus luteum
Does not contribute to the appearance of secondary sex characteristics
Major effects:
Helps maintain pregnancy
Prepare the breasts for milk production