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118 Cards in this Set

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Testes contain small convoluted seminiferous tubules whose ________ epithelium provide male germ cells known as spermatozoa.
Germinal Epithelium
What predisposes boys to develop germ cell tumors?
What is an assay of spermatazoa and seminal fluid that can help determine reproductive status and fertility in men?
Semen Analysis
How long does spermatogenesis take and where does it occur?
65-75 days and occurs in seminiferous epithelium
What are the 5 components of the sperm?
1. head (nucleus and acrosome)
2. centriole pair (neck)
3. helically arranged mitochondria (middle)
4. and 5. principal and end pieces have the axoneme
What are the important parameters of measured by the semen analysis?
concentration, morphology and motility of the sperm
What is a malignancy of the testis?
What type of cells are Leydig cells tumors derived from?
Testicular Stroma
What type of cells are Sertolli cell tumors derived from?
Sex-cord stroma
What cells help to produce sperm?
Leydig cells
What cells nourish and grown sperm cells?
Sertoli cells
What are invasive germ cell neoplasms accounting for 95% of solid tumors in men 15 to 35 years old?
How many seminiferous tubules does each testis have?
600-1200 seminiferous tubules
Interstitial CT contains Leydig cells which produce what?
What is an epithelium that contains Spermatogenic (germ) cells and Sertoli cells?
Seminiferous Epithelium
What is an usual complex of stratified epithelium with 2 cells populations?
Seminiferous Epithelium
What is the site of spermatogenesis?
Seminferous tubules
What are irregular columnar cells that extend from the vasal lamina to the lumen and provide structural organization to the tubule?
Sertoli cells
What cells synthesize androgen-binding proteins which is necessary for spermatogenesis?
Sertoli cells
What are germ cells located in the Sertolli cells?
Spermatogenic cells
What cells are located in the seminferous tubules of the Interstitial CT and synthesize testosterone?
Intertstitial cells of Leydig
Seminal vesicles produce the most prominent ingredient of human semen.what is it?
Seminal Plasma
What produces the slightly alkaline, viscous fluid in the semen?
Seminal Vesicles
What produces a secretion rich in citric acid, lipids, zinc, and acid phosphatase?
Prostate Gland
What secretes a viscous mucus fluid into the urethra that provides lubrication before ejaculation?
Bulbourethral Gland
What are the 5 phases of sperm production?
1. Spermatogonia type 1
2. spermatogonia type 2
3. primary spermatocyte
4. secondary spermatocyte
5. spermatid
In the male, the Umbilical A supplies what?
Ductus Deferens
In the female, the Umbilical A supplies what?
superior vesicle of the bladder
What is a muscular tube that is approximately 45 cm long and converys sperm from the epipdymis to the ejaculatory duct?
Ductus Deferens
Describe the epithelium of the epididymus?
Pseudostratified epithelium
What are the 3 parts of the epididymus?
What is an inflammation of the epididymis and is frequently caused by bacterial infection and can lead to male infertility?
Where does the ductus deferens enter into the pelvic cavity?
At deep inguinal ring LATERAL to the inferior epigastric artery
State the ducts that merge to form the ejaculatory ducts.
Ductus deferens and Seminal Vesicles ducts
Where does the bulbourethral gland open into the urethra?
at the Spongy Urethra
The ampulla of the Ductus Deferens sits on top of what?
Seminal Vesicle
What is a minor surgical method that produces permanent sterility?
Approximately how long is the ductus deferens?
40 cm
What type of epithelium does the Ductus Deferens have?
Pseudostratified Epithelium composed of tall columnar cells with apical stereocilia and basal stem cells
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
by an indurated area in the gland palpated on rectal exam as well as a PSA test
What is Indurated Area?
localized hardening of the prostate gland, the area is firm but not as hard as bone
Where does the prostate gland surround the urethra?
below the neck of the urethra
What is invested by a thin connective tissue capsule and comprise a collection of 50 compound tubulo-aveolar glands lined by pseudostratified epithelium?
Prostate Gland
Prostate secretions are what percent of the ejaculate volume? What enzymes does it contain?
10-20% of ejaculate volume- contains acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc, and prostate-specific antigen.
What affects about 30% of men older than 50 years old and is caused by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of glandular and stromal cells in the prostate gland?
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
What is the most common malignant tumor in men?
adenocarcinoma of the prostate
What would be elevated with someone who has adenocarcinoma of the prostate?
serine protease prostate specific antigen (PSA)
A supranuclear Golgi complex, lots of rER, and many apical secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm of the columnar cells are in what type of epithelium?
Prostatic Epithelium
Pseudostratified epithelium of secretory alveoli in the prostate consists of what type of cells?
small basal cells and tall columnar cells
What is the major role of the tall columnar cells in prostatic epithelium?
synthesis and secretion of citric acid, lipids, and acid phosphatase
Seminal vesicles are rare but if they do arise they come from ________.
What can hold 2 to 2.5 ml of seminal fluid and has an elaborately folded mucosa that resembles a honeycomb?
seminal vesicle
What is secreted by the seminal vesicles?
Fructose (main one), potassium ions, and prostaglandins
The underlying lamina propria of the seminal vesicles is _____.
rich in elastic fibers
State the 3 parts of the male urethra?
The prostatic urethra is lined mostly by what type of epithelium?
transitional epithelium (urothelium) with openings for paired ejaculatory ducts and ducts of the prostate
Membranous Urethra is lined by what type of epithelium?
Stratified Columnar Epi
Spongy urethra is lined by what type of epithelium?
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
What is the part of the broad ligament that supports the uterus on both sides?
What supports the ovary and is an extension of the broad ligament?
What is a common cause of female infertility?
PID- pelvic inflammatory disease- often a serious complication of bacterial infection assoc. with STD
The vagina lumen is lined by what type of epithelium?
stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
Why do surface cells of the vaginal lumen epithelium seem washed out?
variable amounts of glycogen
What represents 90% of Ovarian malignancies?
Epithelial ovarian carcinomas
What covers each ovary?
Ovarian surface epithelium (visceral peritoneum)
What harbors oocytes containing ovarian follicles of various sizes?
Outer cortex of the ovary
What part of the ovary contains loose connective tissue with many blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics?
Inner Medulla
State the 5 parts of the fallopian tube
Intramural Region
What part of the fallopian tube is open to the peritoneal cavity?
What is the thin walled and longest region of the fallopian tube?
Where does fertilization normally take place?
What is a narrow thick walled segment of the fallopian tube nearest to the uterine wall?
What part of the tube traverses the uterine wall?
Uterine segment of fallopian tube
What type of epithelium do the fallopian tubes have?
Simple columnar epithelium with peg cells and ciliated cells
Approximately how long are the fallopian tubes?
12 to 15cm long
Describe the lamina propria of the fallopian tubes.
highly cellular LP
What is a common site of ectopic pregnancies?
uterine tube
What is the role of Peg cells in the epithelium of Fallopian Tubes?
To secrete a nutritive fluid that facilitates capacitation of spermatozoa. (capture sperms cells, "pegs them")
How do you distinguish peg cells and ciliated cells when looking at a histo slide of the fallopian tubes?
pegs cells have no cilia
What are the 3 walls of the uterus?
What part of the uterus is composed of simple columnar epithelium with 2 layers?
What layer of the endometrium is lost during menstruation?
Superficial functional layer
What are the 2 layers of the endometrium?
Deep Basal Layer
Superficial Functional Layer
What part of the uterus is composed of smooth muscle, CT, and prominent blood vessels?
Myometrium (body of uterus)
What part of the uterus is composed of the peritoneal layer of the broad ligament?
Blood vessels in the myometrium of the uterus are located in what?
stratum vascular
What are benign tumors of the uterus that arise from localized hyperplasia of the myometrium?
Leiomyomas- aka fibroids- most common tumor in the female pelvis
What is it called when endometrial tissue appears at unusual locations in the abdomen and pelvis of women between puberty and menopause?
The endocervix is lined by what epithelium?
simple columnar epithelium
The exocervix is lined by what epithelium?
stratified squamous nonkeratinized epith.
The upper part of the cervical canal is lined by a mucous membrane known as what?
What is the lower part of the portio vaginalis lined by?
exocervix- continuous with vaginal mucosa
The cervical canal is lined by what epithelium?
Simple columnar epithelium and is filled with mucus
Occlusion of the mucus glands in the cervical canal will lead to what?
Nabothian cysts
What in the cervix is an abrupt squamo-columnar junction?
Transformation zone- just above the external os of the cervix. Most cervical cancers arise here.
What is the 2nd most common cancer in women and is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in underdeveloped countries?
Cervical cancer
Where do most cervical cancers arise from?
Transformational zone
What do you notice about the Sertolli cells verse the Interstitial cells of Leydig?
Their location, Sertolli cells are inside the capsule of the seminferous tubule and Leydig cells are in the interstitium
What is labeled by D?
Tails of Spermatozoa
What is this an image of? What is unique about it's lumen?
Vas Deferens with a lumen the size of 0.5cm and lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Where in the prostate gland does carcinoma usually arise?
anywhere but most commonly in the posterior lobe near the outer margins
What is this an image of?
Prostate gland- invested by thin connective tissue capsule and has 50 compound tubulo-alveolar glands
Most prostate adenocarcinoma arise in what zone?
peripheral zone
What is this an image of?
Prostatic epithelium
What is this an image of?
Seminal Vesicle
notice the mucosal folds
What is this an image of?
Transitional epithelium of Prostatic Urethra Epithelium
What part of the penis is this?
Corpus Spongiosum
What kind of epithelium does the fossa navicularis have?
stratified squamous epith.
This is an image of the ovary, what is the large cell?
Mature (Graafian) ovarian follicle
In this histo image of the vagina, what is the epithelium?
stratified squamous nonkertanized epithelium
What structure is this found in?
What is this an image of?
Fallopian tube
notice the Secretory cells (Peg cells) and the Ciliated cells.
What is this an image of? This is in the female.
fallopian tube
Note the mucosal folds
What is the perimetrium composed of?
peritoneal layer of broad ligament
What phase is this endometrium in?
Early follicular Proliferative phase
What is this an image of?
Nabothian cysts on cervix
What part of the cervix is this found?
Endocervix- note the simple columnar epithelium
What part of the cervix is this?
Exocervix- stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium devoid of glands