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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In general terms describe the lymphatic system
System of vessels, tissues and structures that captures the fluid from the interstitial fluid and returns it to the circulatory system
Define the term lymph
the fluid in the lymphatic system
What percentage of the fluid that leaves the circulatory system at the capillaries returns to the circulatory system via the lymphatic system?
List and describe the 5 primary functions of the lymphatic system
1. Drains tissue fluids from the interstitial spaces and returns the fluid to the cardiovascular system
2.processes lymph through lymphoid tissues before returning to cardiovascular center
4.antibody formation
5.lipid absorption by the lacteals in the small intestine
Name the components of the lymphatic system
2.lymph capillaries
3.lymph vessels
4.lymph trunks
5.lymph ducts
6.lymph nodes
7.spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
what does the lymph contain?
small proteins that have escaped the blood and need to be returned
describe the anatomy of the lymphatic capillaries (found throughout the body except for what structures?)
-blind capillary sized vessels
-within tissues
-found through the body except for:
avascular tissue
central nervous tissue
splenic pulp
bone marrow
describe the anatomy of the lymphatic capillaries
-slightly larger than blood capillaries
-the ends of cells overlap
-contain anchoring filaments for drainage
explain the anchoring filaments of the lymphatic capillaries
-surounds the cells that surround the lymph. caps.
-will pull on the cells to open up the spaces b/t the cells which causes drainage of the additional fluid when the cell swells
what are lacteals? Where are they found? What is their function?
-in the small intestine
-absorbs lipids
describe the 5 structures of the lymphatic system in order of the drainage of the lymph
1. lymphatic capillaries
2.lymphatic vessels
3.lymphatic nodes
4.lymphatic trunks
5.lymphatic ducts
back to the circulatory system
describe the anatomy of the lymphatic vessels
-resemble veins but have thinner walls and many more one-way valves
where are the lymphatic vessels found?
-in subcutaneous tissues
-gennerally follow veins except in the viscera where they follow arteries
-the vessels then drain into nodes
describe the structure of the trunks
-larger than vessels
-thinner than veins
-have more one-way valves
what are the 5 principle trunks and where are they found
1. Right and Left lumbar
2.Intestinal trunk
3.Right and Left bronchomediastinal trunks
4.Right and Left subclavian trunks
5.Right and Left jugular trunks
Describe the function of the lymphatic ducts
recieves lymph from the truks and distributs it back to the circulatory system
Name the 2 ducts found in the human body
1. thoracic duct
2.right lymphatic duct
describe the thoracic duct and where it is located
-15-18 inches long
-starts at the enlargement(cisterna chyli)
-located at 2nd lumbar
what is the main collecting duct that drains most of the body
thoracic duct
what does the thoracic duct drain
-lower limbs
-walls of the viscera in pelvis
-adrenal glands
-abdominal wall
-part of the liver
-Left side of head
-L side of upper limb
-L lung
-L side of heart
which duct drains mostly the left side of the body?
the thoracic duct
which duct drains mostly the right side of the body?
the right lymphatic duct
what are the primary lymphatic organs and what do they produce
-red bone marrow
-thymus gland
-they produce B cells and T cells and the maturation of B and T cells
what are the secondary lymphatic organs?
-lymphatic nodes
-lymphatic nodules
what surrounds the lymphatic nodes and what surrounds the lymphatic nodules?
-lymph nodes=surrounded by a capsule made of CT
-lymph nodules= no capsule surrounding it
describe the location and function of the thymus gland
-posterior to sternum
-b/t the lungs
-anterior to trachea
needed for the maturation of T cells in children
describe the anatomy of the thymus gland
-CT holds two lobes together each lobe wrapped in CT
what is the difference b/t adults and infants in the size of the thymus gland?
-large in infants and reaches maximum size around 10-12 years old
-after puberty it reduces in size and disapears in adulthood
where are the lymph nodes found?
-scattered throughout the body
-usually in groups
-concentrated in:
-mammary glands
-intestinal area
what is the logic of where the lymph nodes are concentrated
-makes it harder for bacteria to pass through
-filter, identify pathogens before it enters the core region of the body
describe the structure of the lymph nodes
-bean shaped
-covered by capsule: dense connective tissue
-trabeculae=extensions that extend down into the node
-reticular fibers
-efferent vessels
-afferent vessels
what is the purpose of the reticular fibers in the lymph nodes?
-network of fibers
-holds the B cells, T cells, and other types of cells in place
what is the outer and inner layer of the lymph nodes?
what is the function of the lymph nodes?
-defend against pathogens
-production of macrophages
-production of plasma cells
----> antibodies
what is the function of the efferent lymphatic vessels?
forces the lymph to stay longer
what is the largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body
describe the structure of the spleen
-outer serous membrane
-interior=white pulp (lymphatic tissue) and red pulp (venous sinuses)
what is the function of the spleen
2.stores blood
3.produces blood cells in early development
define a lymphatic nodule
patches of lymphatic tissue without the capsule
what does MALT refer to?
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
where are the lymphatic nodules (MALT) found?
-GI tract
-respiratory tract
-urinary tract
-reproductive tract
-small amounts in each organ
What are the names of the tonsils.Where are they located? What are they?
-Large concentration of lymphatic nodules
1. pharyngeal tonsil-in the nasopharynx
2. two palatine tonsils-back of the throat
3.two lingual tonsils-base of the tongue
Define the term "Nonspecific Resistance"
-innate defenses
-present at birth
-provide protection to wide variety
What structures constitute the first line of defense?
2.mucous membrane
3.body fluids and reactions (saliva, urine)
how does the skin provide for defense against pathogens?(5 ways)
1.constantly shedding outer layer of skin
2.sebaceous glands:protective film
3.acidity of skin
4.perspiration:flushes the skin, puts antibacterial chemicals on the surface
5. natural fauna
describe the skins anatomy
-multiple layers of keratinized cells
what structures or defenses are found in the mucous membrane? (6)
1.epithelial tissue
2.goblet cells
3.mucus:traps the pathogens in the nose:filters pathogens
6.tight junctions that line the cavities
describe the different fluids produced by the body that provide protection
-vaginal secretions
-gastric juices
how do the different fluids act to defend against pathogens
(saliva, tears, urine, vaginal secretions, gastric juices)
-saliva: antibacterial chemicals
-tears: antibacterial chemicals
-urine: acidic, gets rid of fixed acids
-vaginal secretions:slightly acidic, flushes pathogens
-gastric juices: acidic environment
how does defecation and vomitting protect you from pathogens
-expells microbes from your body
what are the second lines of defenses?
-mechanisms still considered to be innate to pathogens
-nonspecific resistance
what are the 5 second line of defenses?
1. internal anti-microbial proteins
4.natural killer cell
5. fever
name the 3 types of antimicrobial proteins
1. interferons
2.compliment system
describe interferons: how they work, what they are produced by?
-group of proteins produced by cells infected by viruses
-alerts nearby cells that a virus is detected, causes cells to synthesize anti viral proteins, destroys the viruses DNA