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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

There are 280mill. Hb molecules in one RBC. A single Hb molecule carries______ molecules of O2, which means that a single RBC carries about_______ O2 molecules.



All of the following except_______ leads to a decrease in HCT.


Why is it important that when iron binds to oxygen that this is a temporary and reversible interaction?

Because the oxygen needs to disassociate into tissues.

What accounts for males HCT (46) being higher than females HCT (42)?

Androgens stimulate RBC production

Under normal conditions, what is the fate of the globular proteins of a recycled hemoglobin molecules?

They are disassembled into their component amino acids

All of the following except _______ are characteristics of all types of WBCs.

They are phagocytic

What is the nature of and purpose of surface antigens on RBCs?

-Integral membrane glycoprotein or glycolipids

-Substance your immune system recognizes as "normal"

Which type of WBC is found in greatest numbers in an infected cut?


Monocytes transform into_______ in tissues, where they _______.


-Are phagocytic and release chemicals that attract neutrophils

Sam has an infestation of large parasitic worms. Which of the following will happen?

Eosinophils will release cytotoxic enzymes from their granules

If Derek has surface antigen B and D on his RBCs, what blood type does he have? What type of antibodies are in his plasma?


-Anti-A antibodies

Andrew has blood type O negative. What type of blood can he receive from a donor? Why

-O negative

-He has anti-A and anti-B antibodies in his plasma

Why can't a person with type A blood safely receive blood from a person with type B blood?

Type B blood would agglutinate in the recipients blood vessels and plug small vessels to vital organs

Why is it unlikely that the antibodies in a type O donor plasma would cause a transfusion reaction in a type A recipient?

The plasma portion of donated blood is tiny when compared to the volume of plasma in the recipients body

Why is cross matching performed, though both donor and recipient are known to be the same blood type?

It reveals the presence of potential cross reactions with surface antigens other than A,B,&Rh

Which of the phases of homeostasis occurs first?


Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease where the tissue becomes fibrotic. How could this disease impact the blood?

It can influence:

-cause a decrease in the ability for blood to clot due to decrease production of fibrinogen

-decrease the osmotic pressure of the blood

-decrease the production of immunoglobulins and decrease the ability to fight infection

-decrease the transport of hormone binding proteins and steroids binding proteins

Which of the following is.not true about platelets?

They are derived from lymphoids stem cells

Following surgery for stomach cancer, joe has been diagnosed with pernicious anemia. Which of the following is likely the cause of thus problem?

He may not be absorbing vitamin B12 from his diet since tge operation because of less intrinsic factor

Which condition below would stimulate the release of EOP?

-Hypoxia produced high altitude

-kidney disease

-low.blood pressure due to internal bleeding

In which organ are most plasma proteins synthesized?


All of the following except _______is a major function of blood

Provides storage for calcium ions

Why is venipunture a common technique for obtaining a blood sample?

-blood pressure is relatively low in viens

-superficial veins are easy to locate

-venous walls are thinner that areterial walls

What is the primary difference btwn plasma and interstitial fluid?

Plasma contains significantly more protien

What characteristics of blood contribute to its high viscosity?

Interactions among protiens, formed elements, and water molecules in plasma

What contributions from the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways help form the enzyme complex necessary to begin the Common Pathway?

-Factor VII from the Extrinsic Pathway

-Factors VII and IX from the Intrisic

The region btwn the two pleural cavities that contains the heart and great vessels is called the _______?


Which layer of pericardium touches the heart?

Visceral pericardium

Which of the following is true of cardiac muscle tissue?

Cardiac muscle cells have intercalated discs

Why is the left ventricle more muscular than the right ventricle?

B/c it contracts with force sufficient to push blood through the systemic circuit

Where is the ANS headquarters for cardiovascular control?

Medulla oblongata

What is the importance of the 100msec delay at the AV node?

Atria must contract to fill the ventricles with blood

Why is resting HR somewhat slower than the 80-100 bpm set by the SA node?

- there are less sympathetic nerves that innervate cardiac muscle tissue

-parasympathetic innervation slows the HR down

how is cardiac output (CO) calculated?

- CO ml/min= (EDV-ESV)*HR

-CO ml/min= HR bpm * SV ml/ beat

During ventricular systole of the cardiac cycle, all of the following would occur except _______.

Pressure in ventricles would force the semilunar valves closed

When during the cardiac cycle do ventricles contain their maximal amount of blood? What is this quantity called?

- at the end of atrial systole/ EDV

-at the end of ventricular diastole/ EDV

On an ECG reading,what does the P wave indicate?

Atrial Depolarization

What event is taking place during the Q-T interval

A single cycle of ventricular depolarization and repolarization

What factor could cause an insecure in the size of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram recording?

Increase in heart size

What condition contributes to a reduction in the size of a T wave?

Coronary ischemia

Why is there no wave corresponding to atrial repolarization on an ECG reading

It is masked by the QRS complex

Which of the following affects the rate of venous return?

-Cardiac output

-stroke volume

-heart rate

How is eversion of the AV valves and backflow of the blood into the atria prevented?

Tightening of chordae tendinae abd contraction of papillary muscle

Doris was born with a malformed pulmonary valve. How will that affect her circulation?

Blood will flow back into her right ventricle

Grandpa has developed a radiating pain in his chest upon taking leaves. which medication might be given to offer prompt relief?

Nitroglycerin which is a vasodilator of coronary vessels

How does damage to the cardioinhibitory center of the medulla affect heart rate? Why?

Heart rate increases/ sympathetic dominance

Which blood vessels being blood back into the right atrium?

Superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus

What is the effect of NE binding to adrenergic receptor?

-Increases vasoconstriction

-increases heart rate

Benjamin had an EDV of 120ml, ESV of 45ml, which gives him an SV of 75ml. What is his ejection fraction?


Frank has just run a marathon and his heart is beating extremely rapidly. What happens to the length of diastolic and filling time?

Both decrease

Why is ESV lower when you are actively exercising?

EDV increases and ventricular muscle produces more forceful contractions ejecting more blood

What is the most important factor in considering cardiac function over time?

Cardiac output

Which of the following is an important characteristic of capillaries?

Blood flows through them slowly and exchange occurs quickly

Georgia stands all day at her job,from what condition may she begin to suffer?

Varicose veins

Why does blood pressure increase during exercise?

-Heart rate increases

-vascular resistance increases

-stoke volume increases

While standing in the hot sun,Sally begins to feel light headed and faints. Explain

-Blood has pooled in her lower limbs

-cardiac output has decreased, sending less blood to the brain

-sweating has reduced blood volume

Trace blood from the aortic arch to the right thumb.

Brachiocephalic a. --> r. Subclavian a. --> r. Axillary a. --> r. Brachial a. --> r. Radial a. --> palmar arches

Why is blood pressure higher in the aorta than in the inferior vena cava?

The diameter of the aorta is smaller and velocity or blood flow is also greater

Why does most filtration take place at the arterial end of a capillary?

CHP is higher at the arterial end

Hiw is mean arterial pressure (MAP) determined?

It is diastolic pressure + (pulse pressure/ 3)

What event is happening if net filtration pressure (NFP) is negative?

Reabsorbtion is occuring in a capillary

Which statement below is.not true with regards to Atherosclerosis?

The pressure of.foam cells on the blood vessel wall prevent the plaque from sticking

Although it is true that veins ______, it.is not always true that they carry ______ blood.

Carry blood away from the heart, O2 rich

Why are valves located in veins, but not in arteries?

-Venous blood pressur is lower

-Valves prevent backflow of blood

The hepatic portal system delivers ________.

Nutrients to the liver.

In fetal circulation, what is the role of the ductus venous?

Collects blood from the veins of the liver and empties into the inferior vena cava

Where are fenestrated capillaries important? Why?

-In filtration areas of the kidneys/ they allow rapid exchanges of water and solutes btwn plasma and interstitial fluid

-At the median eminence of the hypothalamus/ they allow diffusion of regulatory hormones

A thrombus in the femoral vein prevents blood flow from the ______ and to the _______.

External iliac vein/ popliteal vein

Grace is in an automobile accident, and her celiac trunk is reuptured. Which organs are directly affected by this injury?

Stomach, spleen, liver, pancrease

Mr. Petit has been prescribed an ACE inhibitor. What effect will this have on his body?

Will inhibit the conversion of angiostensin 1 to angiotensin 2

A patient in the ER has lost 1.5 liters of blood. Which of the following help restore venous return and.improve cardiac output?

-Secretion of E,NE, and constriction of arterioles

-secretion of ADH and aldoesterone

-mobilization of venous reserves and recall of interstitial fluid

Gordon has suffered a stroke in his basilar artery. Which regions of his brain suffer damage?

Medulla, pons, and cerebellum

Which of the following is a unique characteristic of arteries, when compared to veins?

Arteries contain an internal elastic membrane in their tunica interna

The heart and arteries of te systemic and pulmonary circuits contain ____ % of blood volume and the venous system contains_____%. Why?

35:65/ low capacitation of veins

Blood in the left internal iliac artery could travel to all of the following destinations ,except_______.

Quad. Muscles

Which of the following is an example of a local vasoconstrictors?


If blood pressure rises above normalvand baroreceptors in the carotid sinus are unresponsive, which of the following conditions will occure?

Vasomotor and cardioacceleratory centers remain stimulated/ decreased blood flow to the brain

ADH, angiotensin 2, EPO, and ANP are all involved in long-term regulation of blood volume. Which two are also important in regulating blood pressure?

ADH & angiotensin 2