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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define "extremities"
the portions of the skeleton that include the clavicles, scapulae, arms, wrists, and hands, and the pelvis, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet
Define "bones"
hard but flexible living structures that provide support for the body and protection of vital organs
Define "joints"
Places where bones articulate, or meet
What are the three main purposes of bones?
Provide body's framework

Support and protection

Production of red blood cells
What are the four most basic classifications of bones, according to their appearance?



What type of bone is the femur?
What type of the bones are vertebrae?
What do ligaments do?
connect bone to bone
What do tendons do?
connect muscle to bone
What is the periosteum?
Strong, white, fibrous material surrounding bone. Blood vessels and nerves pass through it. It's obvious when it's exposed.
What bones make up the axial skeleton?



What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
The bones of the extremities.
What are the three types of muscles?


What is cartilage?
Tough tissue that covers the joint ends of bones and helps the body form certain parts such as the ear.
What is the septum of the nose bone made of?
What is the trachea made of?
Define "tendons"
Tissues that connect muscle to bone -- they are bands of connective tissue that give us the power of movement
Define "ligaments"
Connective tissues that connect bone to bone and support the joints
What are the four basic types of musculoskeletal injuries?



What are some symptoms of bone fracture?


Grating or crepitus



Exposed bone ends

Joints locked in position

Blood vessel and nerve compromise
Define "open fracture"
A bone fracture that breaks the skin
Define "closed fracture"
A bone fracture that doesn't break the skin
How do you proceed with a "load and go" or unstable patient with multiple fractures?
Address ABCs

Use long spine board

Do not splint individual injuries on the scene
What are the purposes of a splint?
Immobilize joints and bone ends

Decrease pain

Prevent additional injuries
What are the purposes of realigning a fractured bone?
Restore effective circulation

Make splints effective

Decrease circulatory compromise

Reduction in pain
What are the general rules for fracture realignment?
Grasp distal extremity for support

Splint in position found

If extremity is cyanotic or lacks pulse, realign

Apply manual traction -- if resistance, stop and splint. If no resistance, maintain traction until splint applied
Define "traction splint"
A splint that applies constant pull along the length of a lower extremity to help stabilize the fractured bone and to reduce muscle spasm in the limb. Traction splints are used primarily on femoral shaft fractures.
What type of bones are found in the arms and thighs?
Long bones
Where do you find the major short bones of the body?
The hands and feet
What is the strong, white, fibrous membrane that surrounds bones and allows blood vessels and nerves to pass through?
The periosteum
What tissues and fibers cause movement of the body?
What do you call an injury in which bone ends are separated from one another?
What type of splint is most effective in immobilizing joint injuries in their position?
Formable splints
After taking BSI precautions, exposing the area, and controlling any external bleeding, the next step in immobilizing a long bone fracture is:
Applying manual stabilization
If a patient’s injured leg appears shorter than the other, an EMT-B should suspect:
Hip fracture
The splint best suited for stabilization of a dislocated shoulder or a foot/ankle injury is a(n):
soft splint or pillow splint
The splint best suited for easing pain of muscle spasm associated with fractures of the femur is a(n):
Traction splint
Muscle injuries resulting from overstretching or overexertion of the muscle are called:
What is the most common type of bone injury?
A break or fracture
What are the three classifications of bone fractures?
Comminuted, angulated, and greenstick
When assessing a patient, what does the acronym PMS stand for?
Pulse, motor, sensory
For any splint to be effective, what must it immobilize?
Adjacent joints and bone ends
Studies of mechanisms of injury indicate that infants and children with fractured femurs often have injury to:
Internal organs
What are the most common injuries to the ankle and foot?
Fractures and sprains
What do you call a triangular bandage used to support the shoulder and the arm?
A sling
What kind of splint would you use to immobilize a midshaft femur fracture?
A traction splint
Splinting a closed, angulated fracture in the position in which it was found is usually ineffective, and may cause a(n):
open fracture during transport
If your initial assessment reveals an unstable patient, splinting of extremity injuries becomes a ____ priority.
A new alternative to the use of a pneumatic anti-shock garment in the treatment of pelvic injuries is a(n):
Pelvic wrap
Bones are living tissue, and bleed when injured. A simple tibia-fibula fracture can result in blood loss of:
500 cc
Bones are made of dense _____ tissue.
The trachea is made of _____.
_______ fractures are considered very serious because they can result in a 3-4 pint internal blood loss.
True or false: It is not important for the EMT to decide if a bone really has been fractured. If it is painful, or swollen, provide care as if it is a fracture.
True or false: To restore a pedal pulse following a knee dislocation, you may be required to move the injured knee anteriorly.
What term is used to describe the grating sound of broken bones rubbing on each other?