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45 Cards in this Set

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smaller earthquakes that occur after a major earthquake
aftershocks
waves that travel through the interior of Earth; there are two types: primary and secondary waves
body waves
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a gas, liquid, or plastic material
convection
immediate return of deformed rock to its natural shape
elastic rebound
location on the earth's surface directly over the focus of an earthquake
epicenter
specific point in the earth where the rock layers along a fault move, producing an earthquake
focus
wet soil behaves like a liquid and is no longer able to support buildings during an earthquake
liquefaction
waves that travel on the surface of the earth; there is one type of surface wave: Love waves
surface waves
where does most seismic activity occur?
along tectonic plate boundaries
force that drives earthquake activity
plate tectonics
earthquakes are the cause for other natural disasters like: ________
landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction
After an earthquake, additional adjustments can occur along the fault. These adjustments can cause damaging vibrations called _____.
aftershocks
remember p-wave, l-wave, and s-wave motions
okey dokey
Tectonic plate movement is created by _____ in the underlying mantle.
convection
mini-quakes that usually occur before a major earthquake
foreshocks
measure of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake
magnitude
scale that measures the effects or severity of an earthquake
mercalli intensity scale
newer magnitude scale that measures the amount of moved (displaced) rock along a fault to determine the strength of an earthquake
moment magnitude scale
scale of magnitude based on the size of seismic waves produced by an earthquake
richter scale
areas on active faults where a major earthquake hasn't occurred in a long time
seismic gaps
a record of the time and intensity of the energy waves produced by an earthquake
seismogram
instrument used to record and measure vibrations from earthquakes or earth tremors
seismograph
scientific study of earthquakes
seismology
process used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake
triangulation
The area where rock layers first move along a fault is the _____ of an earthquake.
focus
A seismograph records an earthquake, but scientists do not feel it. The earthquake has a magnitude _____.
<2.0
The farther apart the P and S waves are on a seismogram, the farther away is the epicenter of an earthquake. t/f
true
What are some signs that an earthquake may occur? (3)
foreshocks, well water level changes, rock magnitude properties change
arch-shaped, upward fold in rock
anticline
block of rock below the slant of a fault
footwall
a lower block of rock between two normal faults
graben
block of rock above the slant of a fault
hanging wall
an uplifted block of rock between two normal faults
horst
a ramp-like fold between flat rock layers at different elevations
monocline
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are moving apart from each other; the hanging wall drops relative to the footwall
normal fault
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates collide; the hanging wall rises relative to the footwall
reverse fault
cliff-like landform created by a normal fault
scarp
fault that occurs when two tectonic plates are sliding sideways against each other in opposite directions
strike-slip fault
U-shaped, downward fold in rock
syncline
Compressional stress on rock can cause strong and deep earthquakes, usually at _____.
reverse faults
Shear stress created the San Andreas Fault in Southern California. It is an example of a _____.
strike-slip fault
a valley of rolling hills is an example of _____.
anticlines and synclines
When tectonic plates pull apart from one another, tensional stress is placed on rock layers and a ______ fault occurs.
normal
When a huge block of rock is pushed up at a normal fault, a ______ mountain is usually formed.
fault-block
You can tell normal and reverse faults apart because at a normal fault the hanging wall has _____ relative to the footwall.
dropped