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51 Cards in this Set

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underground layer of permeable rock from which groundwater can be removed
aquifer
not allowing a liquid to pass through
impermeable
allowing a liquid to pass through
permeable
amount of air space between soil, or rock particles
porosity
top of the saturated zone in water
water table
groundwater fills the spaces between _____ and _____
soil particles, cracks in rocks
groundwater accounts for ___% of earth's freshwater
30%
the saturated zone is _________ filled with _______
completely, water
the unsaturated zone ______ _____ _____ of the water table
sits on top
porosity is determined by:
particle shape, size, and arrangement
aquifers can be three types:
confined, unconfined, or perched
groundwater is recharged by ___________
precipitation
over time, groundwater ________ into Earth's surface water
discharges
ways to locate groundwater
locate rocks, vegetation, and landforms
A confined aquifer is _____.
found between two impermeable layers
very permeable substance
gravel
what is least porous?
unsorted sand and rock
Macy is looking for groundwater. She will most likely find it _____.
in an area with limestone deposits
The water table _____.
rises and falls with precipitation
a small creek or stream that feeds a larger river or lake
tributary
area of land where all the draining water goes into the same river system
watershed
___% of earths surface water is in lakes. ___% is in rivers and streams
87%, 2%
only ____% of earths freshwater is in lakes, ____% of earths freshwater is in rivers and streams
.25%, .0006%
lakes form when water fills _________ in earth's surface
depression
lakes without _______ contain saltwater
outlets
lakes are recharged by _______, _________, ________, __________, and ____________
precipitation, melting snow and ice, rivers, streams, groundwater seepage
water is discharged by _________, ______, _______, and __________
exaporation, rivers, streams, and the ground
river systems are made of a ________, _______, and _______
rivers source, tributaries, and the mouth
rivers transport ______, _______, and ________
people, goods, and soil
rivers transform land through ________
erosion
the beginning of a river is called the _______
source
The Dead Sea contains saltwater. Most of its water leaves through _____.
evaporation
rivers flow _____ because of ______
downhill, gravity
Most lakes were formed from _____.
melting glaciers
area where all water drains into the same system
watershed
more of earths freshwater is found _______ than in _______
underground, lakes
intermediate stage between snow and ice
firn
large, dome-shaped mass of ice
ice cap
large area of rock and sediment left by a glacier
moraine
____% of earth's freshwater is found in glaciers and ice caps
70%
glacial landforms include _____, _______, and _________
horns, moraines, and glacial valleys
most glaciers take ________ years to form. They form usually near the _______.
100s of, poles
the arctic ice cap ______ on top of the _________
floats, arctic ocean
the antarctic ice cap ______ most of _______
covers, Antarctica
ice caps and glaciers appear to be ______
melting
Retreating ice _____.
causes sea level to rise and causes freshwater to be contaminated
Kettle lakes form when _____.
ice chunks break off a glacier, and then melt
the sides of a glacier move _______ than the middle
more slowly
older glaciers have _____ ice crystals than the younger ones
longer
how do glaciers move?
gravity pulls them downhill, melted ice allows glaciers to slide forward
glaciers form when ______ stays in the same place for a long time
snow