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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Earthquakes occur because of ______.
plate tectonics
The first seismic waves to reach seismograph stations move in a push-and-pull motion. They are called _____.
primary waves
After an earthquake, additional adjustments can occur along the fault. These adjustments can cause damaging vibrations called _____.
aftershocks
Surface waves cause the most damage, but they are ironically called _____.
love waves
How did the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake cause so much damage if it occurred in the middle of the Indian Ocean?
The earthquake caused a tsunami which caused destruction.
Where a major earthquake has happened in the past, but not in a while, is called a seismic _____.
gap
With the help of three seismograph stations, the epicenter of an earthquake can be located by a process called _____.
triangulation
Which scale measures the amount of damage after an earthquake?
Mercalli Intensity scale
Broad areas of folded rock layers that resemble an upside-down bowl are called _____.
domes
Broad areas of folded rock layers that resemble a bowl turned right-side up are called _____.
basins
Mountains produced by tensional stress, like the Teton Range in Wyoming, are called _____.
fault-block mountains
Mountains that have developed because of compressional stress—colliding plates that force rock layers upward—are called _____.
folded mountains
Deep within the earth, the process of mantle _______ drives plate tectonics.
convection
To measure the strength of an earthquake, you can use either a ______ scale or ______ scale.
richter, moment magnitude
Rock layers are pressed under compressional stress
Reverse fault
Rock layers are pressed under tensional stress
normal fault
rock layers are pressed under shear stress
strike-slip fault
Hanging wall has dropped relative to the footwall
normal fault
Haning wall has risen relative to the footwall
reverse fault
With today's advanced technology, scientists are able to predict when an earthquake will occur. t/f
false
Scientists can identify where earthquakes will most likely occur. t/f
true
The Richter scale measures strength while the Mercalli intensity scale measures the effects of an earthquake. Another difference between the Richter scale and the Mercalli intensity scale is _____.
the Richter scale provides a single measurement while the Mercalli intensity scale can produce multiple measurements depending on the area affected
What helps form volcanoes? (3)
plate tectonics, cracks in earth's crust, and built up magma
The Pacific plate collides with and is subducted under four other crustal plates. The area where this happens has lots of volcanic activity. This area is called the _____.
Ring of fire
Which of the following are beneficial products of volcanic activity?
the hawaiian island, the fertile soil, geothermal energy
A volcano with basaltic magma would probably _____.
erupt with a gradual flow
Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are the tallest volcanic mountains on Earth. They have broad, shallow slopes. What kind of volcanoes are they?
shield
If you look up at the Mayon volcano in the Philippines, you'll notice a very tall, steep, and sleek cone. Apparently, this volcano erupted very violently in the past, spewing out both lava and volcanic rock material. The Mayon is a _____.
composite
Mount Paricutin in Mexico is known for its explosive eruptions. It isn't very tall because it's made mostly of volcanic rock and ash that easily erode. Mount Paricutin is a _____.
cinder cone
This feature occurs in an area where water is heated under ground to the point of boiling. When the water and steam build, they finally rise through a vent on the surface, spraying water and steam high up into the air. This feature is a _____.
geyser
Naturally hot water containing many minerals and found on the surface of the earth is called a _____.
hot spring
A natural disaster produced by volcanic activity that has killed more people than lava flows is _____.
a landslide or mudslide
To living organisms, the most dangerous debris from tephra is probably _____, because it spreads so widely.
volcanic ash
Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupted and caused the "Year without a Summer." Over 100,000 people died from starvation because of the resulting _____.
climate change
What are warning signs of a volcanic eruption? (3)
the temperature of a volcano has risen significantly, theres an increase in seismic activity near the volcano, smoke plumes are rising out of the crater
A tiltmeter is a volcanic monitoring tool that measures _____.
ground swelling
If you had to measure the amount of sulfur dioxide coming out of a volcano, what instrument would you use?
correlation spectrometer
What are some geological features of volcanic activity? (4)
intrusive and extrusive igneous rock, volcanic necks, flood basalt plateaus, calderas and craters
_____ are geological features created by rhyolitic magma. Rhyolitic magma promotes _____ eruptions.
lava domes, plinian
_____ magma is a mix between basaltic and rhyolitic magma. The eruption that would most likely result from this magma is a _____ eruption.
andesitic, strombolian
As for earthquakes, ___ can be used to monitor tremor activity of volcanoes.
seismograph
Plinian eruptions are the most powerful type of eruption. They are usually caused by _____ magma.
rhyolitic
A volcanic eruption can be predicted. t/f
true
someone who creates maps
cartographer
You can tell what type of rock is in an area and its age range by reviewing the area's color and _____ and comparing it to information given in the legend.
letters
he distance between contour lines of elevation
contour interval
lines of equal elevation that display height, shape, and steepness of ground features
contour lines
teeth-like marks on contour lines that indicate a depression or sunken area
hachure marks
also known as a contour map; shows shape, steepness, and height of ground features by using contour lines
topographical map
Where a contour line crosses a river, it makes a V shape. The open side or mouth of the V indicates _____.
downstream
Topographic maps represent an area's physical features by describing _____.
shape, elevation, and steepness of features
The upstream of a river can be determined by _____.
the direction of the points of the V shapes on contour lines
The capital letter(s) that label a rock unit (e.g., KJk) on a geologic map represents the rock unit's _____.
age range
Hachure lines, or lines with teeth, describe _____.
depressions
Any place inside a hachure line is a _____ elevation than the hachure line.
lower
remember less than 2750 feet
okey