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50 Cards in this Set

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Early Childhood Body Growth
Growing more slowly than before, longer and leaner, lose baby-teeth
Early Childhood Brain Growth
Lateralization, accompanied by handedness (dominant hemisphere), myelination in cerebellum, hippocampus and corpus callosum develop rapidly
Corpus Callosum
Connects two cerebral hemispheres, facilitates smooth coordination of movements
Plays vital role in memory and spatial awareness
Pituitary gland releases both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). GH stimulates growth in all body tissues except central nervous and genitals. TSH releases thyroxine which allows brain development
Poor diet suppresses immune system, making children more susceptible to disease (which in turn may cause malnutrition), impairs physical and cognitive development
Gross Motor Development (Early Childhood)
Balance greatly improves in early childhood, capable of running, jumping, galloping, skipping, and throwing balls. Boys have the edge in GMD
Fine Motor Development (Early Childhood)
Control of hands and fingers improves, capable of putting puzzles together, building with blocks, and drawing. Girls have the edge in FMD
Scribbles to representational forms to more realistic drawings: gestural drawing-> tadpole person-> head/body differentiated person. Realize that writing stands for language,
Make-Believe Play
Gradual flexibility in representing objects (using a cup as a hat), gradual lessening of self-centered play, coordination of schemes (play pouring AND drinking)
Before age 3 children have difficulty holding two representations in their mind at once i.e. viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol (model room that stands for a larger room)
Pre-Operational Thought
Egocentrism (failure to distinguish other's viewpoints from one's own--view of mountain), conservation (physical characteristics that stay the same while appearances change), hierarchical classification (objects organized into classes and sub-classes)
Early Childhood Theory of Mind (Contributors/Limitations)
As representation, memory and problem solving improve, children reflect on their own thoughts (Metacognition) and develop a coherent set of ideas about mental activities. See behavior as consistent with desires, not influenced by beliefs. Language and socialization facilitate reflection. They cannot understand that thoughts can take place with no outward signs though.
Erikson's Theory
The stage of early childhood is characterized by the conflict of Initiative vs. Guilt which either results in a new sense of purposefulness and eagerness to approach the world, or a sense of reluctance and 'why even bother'
Self-Concept & Self-Esteem
The set of attributes, qualities, values, etc. that an individual believes defines them, and the judgments we make about our own worth (and the feelings associated with those judgments)
Early Childhood Emotional Development
Understanding: Begin to correctly judge/predict the causes of emotions. Self-Regulation: Develop strategies for dealing with/minimizing bad emotions (cover eyes when scared). Self-Conscious: Emergence of shame, pride, guilt. Empathy: feeling with someone and acting to benefit them with no anticipated reward
Punishment: Harsh Physical vs. "Time Out"
Physical: Models aggression, chronic fear, lose an otherwise good model
Positive: Conscience development, empathy expressed after transgressions, fair play
Aggression (+ Sex Differences)
Physical; harms others physically or indirectly.
Verbal; harms through threats, name-calling, teasing.
Relational; harms reputation, malicious gossip.
Males tend toward physical aggression while females tend toward relational, however, males still have an overall higher level of aggression
Violence in Media
Violence pervades television, games, and other media and has been shown to induce (at least short term) increases in violent thoughts/actions/emotions. Boys consume far more of this media (though likely because of 'male' themes)
Parenting Styles
Authoritative (warm and responsive but reasonably demanding), authoritarian (cold and coercive), permissive (overindulgent and undemanding), uninvolved (detached and undemanding).
Authoritative parenting facilitates maturity, and autonomy while maintaining a secure and warm relationship.
Middle Childhood Body Growth
Bones lengthen and broaden with loosely attached ligaments and increasing muscle strength; thus unusual flexibility. Add 2-3 inches per year and ~5lbs, between ages 6-8 girls are shorter and lighter, but this dramatically reverses as they reach age 9.
Correlation of SES to Health
Nutrition is extremely important at this age and poor families have trouble providing plentiful well-balanced diets. Persistent malnutrition can lead to permanent physical and mental damage.
Gross Motor Development (Middle Childhood)
Increases in flexibility, balance, agility, and force. Girls do well with balance and agility (such as hopping and skipping), while boys outperform in the rest (in throwing and kicking the gender gap is large)
Fine Motor Development (Middle Childhood)
Improved printing (can write out alphabet) and more detailed object drawing. Girls still have an edge with handwriting/drawing etc.
Rule-Based Games
Simple physical skills and large element of luck guide these early games. Children learn the importance of rules by creating their own games.
Rough and Tumble Play
Friendly chase-and-fighting is called rough and tumble play, it provides a safe context to assess one's own strength and the threat that others may pose.
Physical Education
Gym games should be informal and emphasize individual exercise, as children should get at least 1 hour of moderate intensity exercise per day.
Concrete Operational Stage - Characteristics
From about 7-11 years old children can begin to approach problems logically, flexibly and in more organized ways. Children can finally pass conservation tasks as well as classification tasks. They demonstrate 'Reversibility', the capacity to think through steps and then return to the starting point, and can order items quantitatively (Seriation). They can even make transitive inferences as long as they aren't purely hypothetical. And spatial reasoning becomes ever more realistic.
Concrete Operational Stage - Limitations
Called 'concrete' operational because this kind of reasoning is only facilitated when dealing with concrete information (like real objects). Children must work out the logic of each situation individually, they do not come up with general logical principles.
Sternberg's Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg sees three broad, interacting intelligences. Analytic intelligence, or information processing skills. Creative intelligence, or ability to solve novel problems. Practical intelligence, or adaptive application of intellectual skills to everyday situations
Gardner's Theory of Intelligence
Gardner sees there to be many intelligences, or distinct sets of processing operations for engaging in a range of culturally valued activities. He believes each has a unique biological foundation. They are: Linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
Self-Concept in Middle Childhood
A major change takes place in self-understanding between ages 8 and 11, children can abstract dispositions from experiences and behaviors. They no longer see themselves in all-or-nothing ways, they emphasize their competencies ("very good cellist") and dispositions ("truthful, but lose temper easily"). Their self-concept is now influenced by social comparisons, like how they appear/behave relative to their agemates.
Parenting Style vs. Self Esteem
Authoritative: high self-esteem, warm parenting makes child feel accepted and firm, reasonable expectations provide standards and mutual respect. Authoritarian: controlling parents give child a sense of inadequacy and create low self-esteem, they rely on peers for self-worth. Permissive: creates unrealistically high self-esteem which undermines them in situations where they lash out at challenges to their overblown ego.
Attributions - Mastery vs. Helplessness
Mastery Oriented: success is credited to ability (which can be improved with effort and counted on in new challenges), and failure is ascribed to controllable factors (like too little effort). Learned Helplessness: success is tied to external factors (like luck) and failure is tied to ability, which they conclude is fixed and cannot improve with effort.
Problem-Centered Coping
Two strategies for self-regulating emotion. Problem Centered aims to treat the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and take steps to change it.
Emotion-Centered Coping
Two strategies for self-regulating emotion. Emotion Centered is resorted to when little can be done about the outcome (failed to 'solve the problem') and takes place internally to control distress.
Moral Development in Middle Childhood
View distinction between moral transgressions and social conventions. Social conventions with obvious and reasonable purposes are given more weight, while seemingly arbitrary or unjustified conventions are less significant. Children begin to see the importance of 'rights' for maintaining a fair society, and begin to understand 'intention' and 'context' as inflecting the moral/immoral act.
Peer Acceptance - Popular/Unpopular
Popular Children, many positive votes, socially adept but potentially aggressive and become less liked over time.
Rejected Children, many negative votes, tend to be anxious and unhappy with low-self esteem, seen as annoying.
Peer Acceptance - Controversial/Neglected
Controversial Children, both positive and negative votes, combine pro-social behavior with disruptive/hostile acts and often bully peers. Neglected Children, very few votes at all, surprisingly tend to be well-adjusted and successful later in life.
Brain Changes in Adolescence
Synaptic pruning continues and myelination of stimulated neural fibers speeds up, causing rapid frontal lobe development and strengthened neural connections => attention, planning, integration, regulation all improve (quantitative change).
Neurons become more sensitive to excitatory stimuli (neurotransmitter changes) which cause increased stress and pleasure (qualitative change).
Pubertal Groawth - Individual Differences
Heredity contributes substantially to the timing, as do nutrition and exercise. Malnutrition can delay menstruation by years. Emotional environment may also play a role, with conflict signaling the need to reproduce earlier.
Pubertal Change - Emotion and Social Behavior
Pubertal hormone levels are modestly linked to greater moodiness. Biological psychological and social forces make this a time of emotional peaks and valleys and general emotional instability. More negative adult-structured experiences (school, home, etc.) and more positive peer interactions (parties, hanging)
Pubertal Timing - Boys Vs. Girls Outcomes
Early Puberty for girls is detrimental, resulting in physical insecurity and social unpopularity. While for boys it is positive, resulting in confidence, popularity and positive body image. Late puberty onset for girls results in social popularity and positive body image (pre-pubertal bodies fit with societal ideals for beauty). While for boys late puberty is detrimental, resulting in anxious, attention-seeking behavior and social unpopularity.
Sexual Activity - Timing
Heavily influenced by social context. Adolescents often learn about sex through media and so see it as more pervasive than it really is, feel pressured to act on/accept it when really only about half of adolescents have had intercourse.
Sexual Activity - Causes
Early teenage sexuality is linked with impulsivity, parental divorce, detached parents, sexually active siblings, etc. Many of these factors are associated with low SES.
Sexual Activity - Consequences
Can result in STD's, one in six sexually active teens acquires an STD each year. Can also result in adolescent pregnancies which are far more likely to be poverty-stricken. Educational attainment, marrital patterns, and economic circumstances are all affected deeply by a teen-pregnancy.
Formal Operational Stage
In this stage, the capacity for abstract, systematic, and scientific thinking is developed. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: when faced with a problem, can start with a hypothesis or prediction and deduce relevant variables/inferences and then systematically isolate/test them. Propositional thought also characterizes this stage, it is the ability to evaluate the logic of a proposition independent of any real-world circumstances.
Adolescent Self-Consciousness and Self-Focusing
The World is a Stage, adolescents believe they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern. Personal Fable, adolescents perceive themselves as somehow unique and important (protagonist syndrome). Idealism, adolescents can construct grand visions (religious, political, societal, familial, etc) about how the world ought to be
Stereotype Threat MUST FINISH THIS ONE