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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

height changes

gain 2-3 inches per year

weight changes

gain 4-6 pounds per year; become slender and shed baby fat

brain development

2 years = 75% of its adult weight

5 years = 90% of its adult weight

right-handed individuals

left hemisphere is relatively more involved in intellectual undertakings that require logical analysis and problem-solving, language, and computation

right hemisphere

superior in visual-spatial functions, aesthetic and emotional responses, and understanding metaphors

corpus callosum

thick bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain


tendency of new parts of the brain to take up the functions of injured parts

gross motor skills

skills employing the large muscles used in locomotion

gross motor development

3 years = balance on one foot

3 or 4 years = walk up stairs by placing a foot on each step

4 or 5 = skip and pedal a tricycle

rough-and-tumble play

running, chasing, fleeing, wrestling, hitting with an open hand, laughing, and making faces

fine motor skills

skills employing the small muscles used in manipulation, such as those in the fingers

4 stages of artistic development

placement, shape, design, pictorial

design stage

combine shapes

pictorial stage

designs begin to resemble recognizable objects


1-3 years = 1,000-1,300 calories

4-6 years = 1,400 calories

minor illnesses

1-3 years = 8-9 illnesses

4-10 years = 4-6 illnesses

major illnesses

1/3 of children under 18 suffer from a chronic illness


preschoolers = 11-13 hours

sleep terrors

frightening dreamlike experiences that occur during the deepest stage of non-REM sleep, shortly after the child has gone to sleep


sleep walking


failure to control the bladder once the normal age for control has been reached


failure to control the bladder during the night


failure to control the bowels once the normal age for bowel control has been reached. also called soiling

preoperational stage

second stage in Piaget's scheme, characterized by inflexible and irreversible mental manipulation of symbols

symbolic play

play in which children make believe that objets and toys are other than what they are (pretend play)


putting oneself at the center of things such that one is unable to perceive the world from another person's point of view


type of thought in which natural cause-and-effect relationships are attributed to will and other preoperational concepts

transductive reasoning

reasoning from the specific to the specific


attribution of life and intentionality to inanimate objects


belief that environmental features were made by people


principle that properties of substances remain the same when superficial characteristics are changed


focusing on an aspect or characteristic of a situation or problem

class inclusion

categorizing a new object or concept as belonging to a broader group of objects or concepts


Vygotsky's term for temporary cognitive structures or methods of solving problems that help the child as he or she learns to function independently

zone of proximal development (ZPD)

Vygotsky's term for the situation in which a child carries out tasks with the help of someone who is more skilled, frequently an adult who represents the culture in which the child develops

theory of mind

commonsense understanding of how the mind works

appearance-reality distinction

difference between real events and mental fantasies


abstract, generalized accounts of familiar repeated events

autobiographical memory

memory of specific episodes or events



fast mapping

process of quickly determining a word's meaning, which facilitates children's vocabulary development

whole-object assumption

assumption that words refer to whole objects and not to their component parts or characteristics

contrast assumption

assumption that objects have only one label


application of regular grammatical rules for forming infections to irregular verbs and nouns


practical aspects of communication, such as adaptation of language to fit the social situation

inner speech

Vygotsky's concept of the ultimate binding of language and thought; originates in vocalizations that may regular child's behavior and become internalized by age 6 or 7