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36 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Ungrouped Data

raw data


Frequency Distribution

summary of data presented in the form of class intervals and frequencies


Classes

Should be between 5 and 15


Class Width

range divided by # of classes, round to convenient number


Relative Frequency

class interval divided by total frequency


Cumulative Frequency

adding previous frequencies with new class midpoint


Histogram

vertical bar chart of frequencies


Frequency Polygon

line graph of frequencies


Ogive

line graph of cumulative frequencies


Pie Charts

proportional representation for categories of a whole


Steps in Frequency Distribution

1. determine the range of frequencies
2.determine the number of classes 3.determine the width of the class interval 

Tables

are the simplest form of a data display


Why tables are effective???

simple, guide eye towards desired comparison


Univariate Data

a set of n observations on 1 variable


Dot Plot

scale w/dots, range of data shows dispersion, clustering shows central tendency


Stacked Dot Plot

compares 2 or more groups using common xaxis


Frequency Distribution

find highest and lowest numbers


Bin Limits

Define the values to be included in each bin, widths must all be the same


Frequencies (bin)

are the # of observation with in each bin, Herbert Sturges proposes that 5 to 15 bins in Histograms


Histogram

is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution


Modal Class

A histogram bar that is higher than those on any one side


Unimodal

a single modal class


Bimodal

two modal classes


Multimodal

more than two modal classes


Skewness

indicated by the direction of the longer tail of the histogram


Tips for Effective Frequency Distribution

1. Check sturges rule
2. Choice a nice bin width round 3. Bin Limits that are multiple of bin width 4. Make sure range is covered 

Simple Line Charts

used to display a time series


TwoScale Line Chart

used to compare variables that differ in magnitude or are measured in different units


Grid Graphs

A line graph that usually has no vertical grid lines


Log Scale: Arithmetic

distances on yaxis are proportional to the magnitude of the variable being desplayed


Log Scale: Logarithmetic

(ratio scale) equal distances represent equal ratios


Log Scale

use for the vertical axis when data varies over a wide range. by more than an order of magnitude


Plain Bar Charts

Most common way to display attribute data, length of bars represent frequencies


Edward Tutle

Book Graphs


Pareto Chart

Special type of bar chart use din quality management to display the frequency of defects and errors of different types , descending frequency order


Stacked Bar Chart

Bar height of several subtotals. Areas may be compared by color to show patterns in the subgroups and total.
