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### 36 Cards in this Set

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 Ungrouped Data raw data Frequency Distribution summary of data presented in the form of class intervals and frequencies Classes Should be between 5 and 15 Class Width range divided by # of classes, round to convenient number Relative Frequency class interval divided by total frequency Cumulative Frequency adding previous frequencies with new class midpoint Histogram vertical bar chart of frequencies Frequency Polygon line graph of frequencies Ogive line graph of cumulative frequencies Pie Charts proportional representation for categories of a whole Steps in Frequency Distribution 1. determine the range of frequencies 2.determine the number of classes 3.determine the width of the class interval Tables are the simplest form of a data display Why tables are effective??? simple, guide eye towards desired comparison Univariate Data a set of n observations on 1 variable Dot Plot scale w/dots, range of data shows dispersion, clustering shows central tendency Stacked Dot Plot compares 2 or more groups using common x-axis Frequency Distribution find highest and lowest numbers Bin Limits Define the values to be included in each bin, widths must all be the same Frequencies (bin) are the # of observation with in each bin, Herbert Sturges proposes that 5 to 15 bins in Histograms Histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution Modal Class A histogram bar that is higher than those on any one side Unimodal a single modal class Bimodal two modal classes Multimodal more than two modal classes Skewness indicated by the direction of the longer tail of the histogram Tips for Effective Frequency Distribution 1. Check sturges rule 2. Choice a nice bin width round 3. Bin Limits that are multiple of bin width 4. Make sure range is covered Simple Line Charts used to display a time series Two-Scale Line Chart used to compare variables that differ in magnitude or are measured in different units Grid Graphs A line graph that usually has no vertical grid lines Log Scale: Arithmetic distances on y-axis are proportional to the magnitude of the variable being desplayed Log Scale: Logarithmetic (ratio scale) equal distances represent equal ratios Log Scale use for the vertical axis when data varies over a wide range. by more than an order of magnitude Plain Bar Charts Most common way to display attribute data, length of bars represent frequencies Edward Tutle Book Graphs Pareto Chart Special type of bar chart use din quality management to display the frequency of defects and errors of different types , descending frequency order Stacked Bar Chart Bar height of several subtotals. Areas may be compared by color to show patterns in the subgroups and total.