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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ungrouped Data
raw data
Frequency Distribution
summary of data presented in the form of class intervals and frequencies
Should be between 5 and 15
Class Width
range divided by # of classes, round to convenient number
Relative Frequency
class interval divided by total frequency
Cumulative Frequency
adding previous frequencies with new class midpoint
vertical bar chart of frequencies
Frequency Polygon
line graph of frequencies
line graph of cumulative frequencies
Pie Charts
proportional representation for categories of a whole
Steps in Frequency Distribution
1. determine the range of frequencies
2.determine the number of classes
3.determine the width of the class interval
are the simplest form of a data display
Why tables are effective???
simple, guide eye towards desired comparison
Univariate Data
a set of n observations on 1 variable
Dot Plot
scale w/dots, range of data shows dispersion, clustering shows central tendency
Stacked Dot Plot
compares 2 or more groups using common x-axis
Frequency Distribution
find highest and lowest numbers
Bin Limits
Define the values to be included in each bin, widths must all be the same
Frequencies (bin)
are the # of observation with in each bin, Herbert Sturges proposes that 5 to 15 bins in Histograms
is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution
Modal Class
A histogram bar that is higher than those on any one side
a single modal class
two modal classes
more than two modal classes
indicated by the direction of the longer tail of the histogram
Tips for Effective Frequency Distribution
1. Check sturges rule
2. Choice a nice bin width round
3. Bin Limits that are multiple of bin width
4. Make sure range is covered
Simple Line Charts
used to display a time series
Two-Scale Line Chart
used to compare variables that differ in magnitude or are measured in different units
Grid Graphs
A line graph that usually has no vertical grid lines
Log Scale: Arithmetic
distances on y-axis are proportional to the magnitude of the variable being desplayed
Log Scale: Logarithmetic
(ratio scale) equal distances represent equal ratios
Log Scale
use for the vertical axis when data varies over a wide range. by more than an order of magnitude
Plain Bar Charts
Most common way to display attribute data, length of bars represent frequencies
Edward Tutle
Book Graphs
Pareto Chart
Special type of bar chart use din quality management to display the frequency of defects and errors of different types , descending frequency order
Stacked Bar Chart
Bar height of several subtotals. Areas may be compared by color to show patterns in the subgroups and total.