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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Define: Central Tendency. What are the three types?

The extent to which the values of a numerical variable group around a central value.

Mean, median, mode

Which measure of central tendency is affected by extreme values (outliers)? Why?

Mean because it considers all the values, including outliers, in a data set equally.

What does variation measure? What are 4 examples of measures of variation?

The spread or dispersion of the values in a set.

1. Range

2. Variance

3. Standard Deviation

4. Interquartile Range

How do variance and standard deviation aid in statistics?

It helps define how the values are distributed.

In what situations are mean, median or mode useful?

Mean is a useful average for data sets without outliers.

Median is useful for determining the average in a set with outliers.

Mode is useful for qualitative data sets (categorical).

Define: skewness

The extent to which the values in a data set are not symmetrical from the mean.

How are quartiles calculated? How does one know the position?

[ k(n+1)]/4, where k is the i-th position of the quartile.


1. Whole number

2. Half

3. Rounded irrational numbers

Define: resistant measures. Give examples

Descriptive statistics which are not affected by outliers.

1. Median

2. Mode

3. Quartiles

How is skewness determined?

Mean - Median.

If > 0, then it is positively (right skewed), or the tail is on the right side.

If < 0, then it is negatively (left skewed), or the tail is on the left side.