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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define: event. What is a simple event?

Each possible outcome of a variable. A simple event is an event which has one characteristic.

Define: joint event

An event that has multiple characteristics.

Define: complement of A.

The set which is not contained in the set of A (A').

Define: sample space

The set of all possible events.

Define: "mutually exclusive".

Two or more events cannot occur simultaneously.

Define: "collective exhaustion"

One of the events must occur.

What is the formula for the General Addition rule?

P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B).

Define: independence. How is it calculated?

When the outcome of an event is not dependent on another. P(A|B) = (A)

Define: probability distribution for a discrete variable?

A mutually exclusive list containing all the possible events along with their probabilities.

What is the population mean of a discrete variable of a probability distribution? In words, how is it calculated?

It is the Expected Value [E(X)]. It is the sum of each outcome multiplied by their respective probabilities.

In terms of the expected value, how can one test whether a distribution follows a binomial one?

If the population mean can also be calculated as n*p, where n is the number of observations and p is the probability of the event of interest.

What are the properties of a binomial distribution?

1. The sample consists of a fixed number of observations, n.

2. Each observation is classified into one of two mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories.

3. The probability of the event of interest is constant (along with its complement) over all observations.

4. The value of any observation is independent from any other.

In terms of the variance (and standard deviation), how can one test if a probability distribution follows a binomial one?

If sigma = sqrt(n*p*(1-p))

What are the different types of probabilities? Define each.

1. A Priori: the probability is based on prior knowledge of the process involved. E.g. Sample space of a deck of cards.

2. Empirical: the probability is based on observed data, not prior knowledge.

3. Subjective: the probability assigned to an event differs from person to person. It is applicable when a priori and empirical data is cannot be used.

Define: Marginal Probability

The probability of the set of joint probabilities.

What is the multiplication rule for dependent events?

P(A and B) = P(B|A) * P(A) = (A|B) * P(B)