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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cocaine's medical uses

surgery involving sensitive tissues: eyes, ears, throat

Amphetamine's medical uses

ADHD, narcolepsy, appetite suppressant

Order of amphetamines by potency

Amphetamine, D-Amphetamine, Methamphetamine

Psychomotor stimulants affect on behavior rate

high rate behaviors decrease, low rate behaviors increase

Cocaine causes numbness by _______

Blocking NA+ channels


The term used to describe how psychostimulants mimic the sympathetic nervous system. Increased HR, increased BP

Effects of Psychomotor stiumlants

increased HR, increased BP, rush/high/buzz, positive reinforcement, anorectic effect, delays in need for sleep

Stimulant enduced psychosis

Schizophrenic like symptoms that result from chronic use. More common in amphetamine.


repetitive nonfunctional behaviors. Rats will turn there heads and circles and sniff one part of the cage repeatedly

Stimulant effects on Performance

Improved vigilance and possibly small boost to motor/athletic performance

Physical Withdrawal symptoms of psychomotor stimulants

sleep disturbance, ahnedonia, difficulty concentrating

Cocaine action at synapse

blocks reuptake of DA

Amphetamine action at synapse

causes more DA to release from the cell and inhibits monoamine oxidase

2nd most traded commodity following petroleum


most common source of caffeine


Animals and caffeine

Animals will not self-administer caffeine

Self Administration of Caffeine in humans

Many people don't self-administer caffeine and are not willing to pay much for it. There is only a slight preference over placebo

Caffeine might possibly become classically conditioned because _____

it is often mixed with sugar and fat

Alcohol is made by

fermenting foods containing sugar with yeast. The byproducts are C02 and ethanol

Behavioral Effects of Alcohol

Euphoria, anti-punishment effect, general anaestetic, zero order kinetics,

About how much alcohol is processed per hour

1/3 of an ounce (1 drink)

How is alcohol metabolized?

The ethanol is broken down by ethanol dehydrogenase into acetaldehyde which is broken down by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetic acid acetate which is broken down into CO2 and water

Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase

is lacking in some individuals which causes build up of acetaldehyde and leads to negative effects


Antibuse: interferes with acetaldehyde hydrogenase

Effects of chronic administration of alcohol

liver cirrhosis, cancer: oral, stomach, liver, central nervous system atrophy, korsakoff syndrome, neurotoxicity

Korsakoff Syndrome

severe anterograde amnesia


unregulated, untested, manufacturer is responsible for safety, can't be marketed for specific conditions, supposed to list all ingredients but nobody checks this

OTC Drugs

require FDA data, must be effective and safe

Designer Drugs

attempts to get around the law

Drug Analogue Act

passed to end designer drugs. If a drug is similar to another drug you can be arrested

Shark Cartilage

marketed as cancer treatment

Viagara Pills

investigated by FDA after enough incidents occurred

Frozen Individuals

Took what was supposed to be heroin and ended up with parkinson's like symptoms. The drug had wiped out DA producing cells in the brain.

The half-life of caffeine

2.5-4.5 hours

The half-life of theophylline and theobromine

6.2-7.2 hours

Caffeine affects which neurotransmitter

It is antagonist for adenosine, blocking receptor sites

Effects of caffeine

stimulation of sympathetic nervous system, relaxation of involuntary muscles, strengthening of voluntary muscles, dilation of bronchi, stimulation of spinal cord

Alcohol's Action at the synapse

GABA, Glutamine, DA

The half-life of amphetamine

7-14 hours when urine is acidic, 16-34 hours when urine is basic

The half-life of cocaine

45-75 minutes