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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


controversial and complex term that has different meanings for different people

Instead of "addiction," the textbook uses this term



the use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug use causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occuring


refers to a state in which the individual uses the drug so frequently and consistently that it appears that it would be difficult for the person to get along without using the drug


reduced effect of a drug after repeated use


hands-off approach to government

Three reasons why government began regulating...

1. Toxicity

2. Dependence

3. Crime


poisonous, dangerous


comes on suddenly



Withdrawal syndrome

a consistent set of symptoms that appear after discontinuing use of a drug

Physical dependence

drug dependence defined by the presence of a withdrawal syndrome, implying that the body has become adopted to the drug's presence

Psychological dependence

behavioral dependence; indicated by high rate of drug use, craving for the drug, and a tendency to relapse after stopping use


a stimulant; the primary active chemical in coca


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration


application to investigate a new drug in human trials

"notice of claimed Investigation exemption for a New Drug"


Drug Enforcement Administration, a branch of the Department of Justice

Bureau of Narcotics

1930 Congress created it.

Treasury Department


maintenance of an environment of body functions within a certain range (ex. temperature, blood pressure)

Cell Body

central region of a neuron, which is the control center


branchlike structure that extend from the cell body and specialize in receiving signals from other neurons


a thin tube that extends from the cell body and specialize in receiving signals from other neurons

Axon terminals

the end region of the axon


a thin, limiting covering of a cell


recognition mechanisms that respond to specific chemical signals


chemical messengers released from axon terminals

Synaptic vesicles

small bubbles of membrane that store neurotransmitters


a fatty, white substance that is wrapped around portions of the axons

Glial cells

one of two major cell types in the nervous system

Provides firmness and structure to brain

Get nutrients into system

Eliminate waste

Form myelin

Communicated with other glia and neurons

Create blood-brain barrier


chemicals that are acted on by enzymes to form neurotransmitters


Drug Abuse Warning Network; system for collecting data on drug-related deaths or emergency room visits

Blood-brain barrier

structure that prevents many drugs from entering the brain


the process of transferring information from one neuron to another at a synapse

Action Potential

the electrical signal transmitted along the axon when a neuron fires


the part of the nervous system that controls "involuntary" functions such as heart rate


branch of the autonomic system involved in flight or fight response


the branch of the autonomic system that stimulates digestion, slows the heart, and has other effects associated with a relaxed physiological state


neurotransmitter found in the parasympathetic branch in the cerebral cortex


neurotransmitter that may be important for regulating waking and appetite


neurotransmitter found in the basal ganglia and other regions

Central Nervous System

CNS. Brain and spinal cord

Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway

one of two major dopamine pathways; may be involved in psychotic reactions and in drug reward

Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway

one of the two major dopamine pathways; damaged in Parkinson's disease


neurotransmitter found int he raphe nuclei; may be important for impulsivity, depression


inhibitory neurotransmitter found in most regions of the brain


opiate-like chemical that occurs naturally in the brains of humans and other animals


excitatory neurotransmitter found in most regions of the brain


the space between neurons


a substance that facilitates or mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell


a substance that prevents the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell


a name that specifies a particular chemical but not a particular brand


an inactive drug

Double-blind procedure

experiment in which neither the doctor nor the patients knows which drug is being used

Dose-response curve

a graph comparing the size of response to the amount of drug


measured by the amount of drug required to produce an effect

Cumulative effects

effects of giving multiple doses of the same drug


excessive use of caffeine

Name the different routes of administration with regards to drug effects and access to the blood stream

1. Oral Administration

2. Insufflation

3. Intravenous injection

4. Subcutaneous injection

5. Intramuscular injection

6. Inhalation

Oral Administration

Relatively slow absorption

Drugs must withstand digestive processes and pass through cells lining the GI tract into bloodstream

Drugs then pass through liver


Rapid onset of effects

Absorption through mucous membranes into bloodstream occurs rapidly

Intravenous injection

Rapid onset of effects

Drug is delivered directly into bloodstream

High concentrations can be delivered

RISKS: irritating material may be injected; damaged veins; blood-borne diseases

Subcutaneous injection/"skin popping"

Under the skin

RISK: can cause necrosis

Intramuscular injection

Into muscle

Absorption is more rapid from intramuscular injection due to the greater blood supply in muscles


rapid onset of effects

drugs move from lungs into bloodstream through capillary walls

The Process of Neurotransmission [Brief chain of events]

1. Resting potential is caused by uneven distribution of ions

-Neuron is hyperpolarized

2. Ion channels open allowing electrically charged particles to move inside the cell

-As a result, neuron may become depolarized

-"All-or-none" action potential occurs

-Note: Blocking ion channels prevents the

action potential and disrupts neural


3. Neurotransmitters are released

What are opioids?


Reduce pain

Ex. morphine, codeine, heroine, methadone

What are stimulants?

Produce wakefulness, a sense of energy

Ex. cocaine, amphetamine, caffeine

What are depressants?

Slow nervous system activity

Ex. alcohol, barbiturates, other sedatives, sleeping pills, inhalants

What are hallucinogens?

Produce altered perceptions

Ex. mescaline, LSD, PCP

What are psychotherapeutics?

Treat symptoms of mental disorders

Ex. Prozac, Haldol

Risk Factors for Drug Use

1. Having friends who use drugs

Engaging in fighting or stealing

Perceiving that substance is prevalent at school

Knowing adults who use drugs

Having a positive attitude toward drugs

Generally urban-minimal parental monitoring, stealing, fights, poor academics

Protective Factors for Drug Use

1. Perceiving strong sanctions against drug use at school

Having supportive parents

Being committed in school

Being involved in religious activities

Participating in two or ore extracurricular activities

Process required for a pharmaceutical company to test and market a new drug

PHASE 1: How the drug is absorbed and excreted

Low doses, 20-80 healthy volunteers

PHASE 2: Initial effectiveness testing

A few hundred patients who could benefit

PHASE 3: Broader effectiveness testing

Typically 1,000-5,000 patients

General Principles of Psychoactive Drug Use

1. Every drug has multiple effects

2. Both the size and quality of a drug's effect depends on the amount taken

3. The effect of any drug depends on individual's history and expectations

4. Drugs, per se, are not good or bad.

Unpleasant symptoms associated with too much caffeine intake/caffeinism




Muscle twitching


Flushing appearance

Elevated temperature


Heart arrhythmias

Gastrointestinal disturbances

Mainstream smoke

smoke inhaled/exhaled by smoker (gone through filter)

Sidestream smoke

smoke rising from ash of cigarette (more dangerous, more carcinogens, straight nicotine and tar, BUT smoke is more diluted)