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9 Cards in this Set

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Explain what muscle balance entails.

Proper ratio of strength, power or endurance relative to another muscle group

Method of prescribing isotonic load assignments.

- 1-RM


- 3-6 rep max

Specificity considerations for strength testing.

- sport movement muscles


- movement pattern and contraction type (isometric vs dynamic- concentric or eccentric)


- contraction velocity

Differences in cardiac variables between trained and untrained individuals at sub max power output.

- greater stroke volume; no difference in oxygen uptake or heart rate



At max vo2:


- 50% increase VO2 - greater stroke volume


- 50% increase VO2 - greater a-v O2 difference


- max HR remains the same or decreases among trained

What is the function of beta blockers?

- reduce myocardial oxygen needs - reduce heart rate and myocardial contraction vigor


- block beta adrenergic receptors in heart from epinephrine and norepinephrine


- reduce sub max and max heart rate


- for CAD and hypertension

How to calculate the training heart rate (intensity) following a progressive exercise test to exhaustion.

- % HRR (oxygen uptake reserve vo2r) - similar to % vo2 max for average or high fitness level


- HRR= (max HR - rest HR)


- indirect calculation of target heart rate range: HR - vo2 linear


- THR range= HRR (%) + rest HR


- 60-80% vo2 max recommended


- RPE 12-16

Define first, second and third class levers.

First class: axis in centre, force arm = resistance arm


Eg, neck


Second class: axis on one end, resistance in between axis and force, force arm > resistance arm


Eg, ankle


Third class: axis on one end, force in between axis and resistance, resistance arm > force arm


Eg, elbow

Type of muscle action with greatest force achieved throughout complete ROM?

ISOTONIC muscle actions: actual movement; equal tension


Eccentric- external resistance exceeds muscle force, sarcomere fibers lengthen with greatest tension development, against force of gravity (prevent fall), recovery phase adds to total work



Concentric- muscle shortens and joint moves as tension develops



*muscle force generation varies throughout ROM

Muscle action that generates force but cannot overcome external resistance to shorten sarcomere fibers and cause joint movement and produce external work

Isometric static action