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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Measurable by quantity


Measuring by quality


John Watson, Ivam Pavlov, Joseph Wolpe, and B.F. Skinner

●Passive theory

●Mind starts as blank slate and child learns behavior through experience

●Relies on empiricism (sense-experience evidence/knowledge)



Growth is orderly, universal and systematic.

Trust vs. Mistrust - birth-1 and 1/2

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubts- 1 and 1/2-3

Initiative vs. Guilt- 3-6

Industry vs. Inferiority- 6-11

Identity vs. Role Confusion- 12-18

●Intimacy vs. Isolation- 18-35

Generativity vs. Stagnation- 35-60

●Integrity vs. Despair- 65+

Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor - birth-2 years

Preoperational - 2-7 years

Concrete Operations - 7-12 years

Formal Operations - 11/12-16 years


Patterns of thought and behavior


Occurs qualitatively when individual fits info into new ideas (assimilation)

Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2)

Object permanence (unseen object still exists)

Preoperational Stage (2-7)

Centration (focusing on one aspect of something)

Concrete Operations Stage (7-12)

Conservation- child knows volume and mass don't change even with a change in shape

Formal Operations Stage (11/12-16)

Abstract Scientific Thinking- abstract thought and deductive ability.

Keagan's Constructive Developmental Model

Emphasis on interpersonal interactions and perception of reality

Lawrence Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development

Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

Preconventional (Kohlberg)

Child responds to consequences. Reward and punishment influence

Conventional (Kohlberg)

Individual desires to meet expectations/standards of family, society, and nation.

Postconventional (Kohlberg)

Many people never reach. Concerned with universal, ethical principles of justice, dignity, and equality of human rights

Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development for Women

Book, "Different Voices", argued that Kohlberg's research was based on men. Women have greater sense of caring/compassion

Daniel Levinson's 4 Major Eras/Transitions Theory

"The Seasons of a Man's Life" discussed changes in a man's life across lifespan. Childhood and Adolescence, Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, Later Adulthood

Lev Vygotsky

Cognitive development not result of innate factors. Produced by activities part of one's culture. Zone of Proximal Development

Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)

Difference in child's ability to solve problems idependently versus with help

Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages

Oral (birth - 1 year, attachment)

●Anal (1-3 years)

●Phallic ( 3-7 years)

●Latency (between 3 and 5 through 12. Least sexual/social vs. sexual)

●Genital (Adolescence - Adulthood)

Oedipal/Electra Complex

3 - 5 years, Phallic stage, fantasies of sexual relations with opposite sex parent

Libido (Freud)

Drive to live, sexual instinct present since birth

Abraham Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

Lower Order Needs = Physiological and safety

High Order Needs = Self-actualization

William Perry's 3 Stage Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development in Adults/College Students

Dualism, relativism, commitment to relativism

Dualism (Perry)

View truth as either right or wrong

Relativism (Perry)

Desire to know various opinions. Perfect answer may not exist.

Commitment to Relativism

Willing to change opinion based on novel facts/new points of view

James W. Fowler's Prestage Plus 6 Stage Theory of Faith and Spiritual Development

0 - Undifferentiated (primal) faith (birth - 4)

●1 - Intuitive-projective faith (2-7)

●Mythic-literal faith (childhood and beyond)

●Synthetic-conventional faith (adolescence and beyond, comformity)

●Individuative-reflective faith (young adulthood and beyond)

●Conjunctive faith (midthirties and beyond; openness to other views, paradox, appreciation for symbols and metaphor)

●Universalizing faith (midlife and beyond, few reach stage)

Can be religious faith or centered on career, country, institution, family, money, success, or self

Social Comparison Theory

Leon Festinger, we evaluate our behavior/accomplishments by comparing ourselves to others

5-Stage Atkinson, Morten, and Sue Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model

1. Conformity (lean towards/prefer counselor from dominant culture)

2. Dissonance (question and confusion, prefer counselor from minority group)

3. Resistance amd Immersion (reject dominant culture, accept one's own culture)

4. Introspection (mixed feelings related to previous stage, prefer counselor of own race/ethnicity)

5. Synergetic Articulation and Awareness (stop racial/cultural oppression, prefer counselor with similar worldview/attitude vs. same race/ethnicity and different views)

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalysis

Long-term treatment, 3-5 years, 4-5/week, focuses on past, free association, dreams are important, unconscious material examined, ego defense mechanisms (repression, displacement, projection, reaction formation, sublimation, rationalization, identification (joining feared person/group), supression/denial), catharsis (sharing repressed emotions), superego (moral, ideal), ego (reality), id (pleasure, biological forces), Eros (life instinct), thantos (death instinct)

Carl Jung's Analytic Psychology

Psychodynamic, personal unconscious, collective unconscious (inheirited and common archetypes), persona (social mask), animus (masculine side of female), anima (feminine side of male), androgynous, self symbolized via mandala, extroversion/introversion typologies, individuation (becoming unique human)

Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology

Psychodynamic, behavior is unconscious attempt to compensate for feelings of inferiority, Will to Power (ability to generate feelings of superiority), behavior motivated by future not past, birth order (first born- conservative leaders, second born- competitive and rebellious, siblings have greater impact than parental interactions)

Behaviorism, Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy

John Watson coined "behaviorism"

Arnold Lazarus coined "behavior therapy"

●Behavior based on learning vs. insight of unconscious mind.

●Criticisms- Doesn't yield insight, treats symptoms not roots, can be manipulative, changes behavior but not underlying feelings.

●B.F. Skinner- Radical behaviorism, behavior molded soley by consequences (operant/instrumental conditioning)

●Positive Reinforcer- stimulus raising probability of repeat behavior. Must come after behavior.

●Negative Reinforcers- also raises behavior, but behavior is done to avoid a negative response)

Albert Bandura- social learning theory (person's behavior increases when someone else gets reinforced for it, vicarious learning)

Punishment- lowers behavior

Behaviorists champion role play

Extinction- (time out) lowers behavior

Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement- rely of work output (vs. Interval schedule reliance on time)

Continuous Reinforcement- each behavior reinforced

Intermittent Reinforcement- Some desired behaviors reinforced

Shaping with Successive Approximation- reinforce small chunks of behavior for desired behavior

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)/Diiferential