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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 3 types of skulls in dogs
Dolichocephalic (long head)
mesaticephalic (moderate head)
brachycephalic (short head)
what is the mandibular symphysis in dogs and cats?
how is it different in horses
cartilaginous joint that joins the 2 sides of the mandible
in the horse, the mandible is fused
what are some common skull problems in brachiocephalic dogs
defective teeth
difficulty breathing-distorted nasal bones
-shallow eye sockets
-dystocia: difficult birth due to large head
what is the corneal process in cattle? what possible problems can arise from it?
the frontal sinus
horn core
-when dehorning, frontal sinus can be exposed to the environment and possibly infected
what are some problems in development in the spine
spinal bifida
hemi vertebrae
intervertebral disk disease
what is spina bifida
a cleft or space in the dorsal part of the verterbral columb
what is hemi vertebrae
failure of the vertebral body to ossify resulting in an improperly formed vertebra
describe "wobblers"
cervical vertebral instability
-narrowing ofthe spinal canal in the the cervical region
-compresses the spinal cord
what is the difference in scapulas between grazers and carnivores
scapular cartilage is well developed in grazers, and poorly developed in carnivores
what is the major difference in radius/ulna of dogs and cats from horses and ruminants
the radius and ulna are fused in the horses and ruminants
how many bones generally form the carpus
describe the carpus of the dog and cat
radial and intermediate bones are fused
describe the carpus of ruminants
first carpal bone is missing and 2nd and 3rd are fused
describe the carpus of horses
first carpal bone is may or may not be present
describe the metacarpal in carnivores
mc 1 is reduced and the corresponding digit is weight bearing (dew claw)
describe the metacarpals in ruminants
mc 1 and 2 are missing
mc 3 and 4 are fused (cannon bone)
mc 5 no digit
describe the metacarpals in equine
mc 1 and 5 are missing
mc 2 and 4 are reduced (splint bones)
mc 3 only one to support a digit and bear weight (cannon bone)
proximal phalanx
middle phalanx
distal phalanx
how many weight bearing digits to carnivores have
digits 2,3,4,5
describe the digits of ruminants
2 weight bearing digits 3,4
2 dewclaws 2,5
describe the digits of horses
1 weight bearing digit 3
long pastern
short pastern
coffin bone
note the sesamoid bones of the equine
-proximal sesamoids located within the fetlock
distal sesamoids located at junciton of middle and distal phalanx
describe the horses ability to sleep standing up
lock knees in place
-trochlear tubercle is very prominent
-part of the stay apparatus or patellar lock mechanism
describe the tarsus
2 rows of bones
5-7 bones depending on the species
describe the ruminant tarsus
central and t4 are fused
t2 and 3 are fused
describe the equine tarsus
t1 and t2 are fused
describe the metatarsals in the carnivore
mt1 is smaller than mc1
describe the metatarsals in ruminants
mt5 is absent
mt3 and 4 are fused
describe the metatarsals in felines
metatarsals are much longer than metacarpals