Axial Skeleton Structure

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Structure of the Axial Skeleton
The Axial Skeleton is the midpoint of the body.
The function of the Axial skeleton is to protect the vital organs such as the brain, heart and lungs
Cranium
Sternum and 24 ribs
24 Vertebrae, Sacrum and Coccyx

Structure of the Appendicular skeleton Figure 2
The Appendicular skeleton is made up of the upper and lower limbs.
Clavicle and Scapula
Humerus, Radius and Ulna
Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges and Sesamoid
Two Pelvis bones
Femur, Tibia, Patella and the Fibula
Tarsals and Metatarsals

Bone Type
Explanation Of Bone
Example Of Bone
Long Bones
It is hard
Dense
They provide the strength, structure and movement for the body.
They are mainly found in the upper and lower parts of the body (arms
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Clavicle:
The Clavicle (collarbone) is a curved bone above the ribs which connect the arms to the trunk of the body.
Ribs:
The ribs protect the chest cavity where many vital organs such as the heart, lungs and blood vessels are found. The ribs are anterior and posterior.
Sternum:
The sternum (breastbone) is a flat bone located in the middle of the chest.
Humerus:
The humerus is found in the upper arm. It is located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. The proximal end is by the shoulder joint and the distal end is by the elbow joint.
Radius:
The radius is one of two bones in the forearm. It is found on the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna. The proximal end is by the elbow joint and the distal end is by the carpals.
Ulna:
It is located on the opposite side of the forearm to the thumb. The proximal end is by the elbow joint and the and the distal end is by the carpals.
Scapula:
The scapula (shoulder blade) is found in the upper back by the shoulder.

Ilium:
The ilium is one of three bones found in the outer sections of the pelvis.
Pubis:
It is located nearer the front of the urinary
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L1-L5
Sacrum:
The sacrum is the fifth segment of the lumbar and is located at the bottom of the spine.
Coccyx:
The coccyx (tailbone) is the last bone on the spine.

Functions of the skeleton

Support: The leg bones such as the femur, patella, tibia and fibula work alongside the pelvis and vertebral column to hold the body up.

Protection: The cranium protects the brain, while the ribs protect many of the vital organs such as the heart and lungs.

Attachment for skeletal muscle: Skeletal muscle helps move the body for voluntary and automatic movements. For example, to stand up, hold your head up and to breathe.

Source of blood cell production: Red blood cells transport oxygen around the body to working muscles and remove carbon dioxide. They are formed in the red bone marrow of bones.

Store of minerals: The skeleton houses two minerals, calcium and phosphorus. These are called upon in times of need.

Joints
Fixed Joints
Fixed joints mean they don’t move. These are found in the skull. The bones in the skull are held together by fibrous connective tissue.

Slightly Moveable Joints
This is when the joints can only move a small amount. We find these joints in between our vertebrae in the neck and

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