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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating


a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people


a mental image or best examples of a category.


a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.


a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently


a sudden, often novel, realization of the solution to a problem


the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence


the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual function

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory


the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited


an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious recall


the way an issue is posed


our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning


in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit


in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning


in a language, a system if rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

semantics(study of meaning)

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language


the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

babbling stage

beginning around four months, the stage of speech development in which an infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, mostly in nouns and verbs

linguistic determination

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think


five components of creativity