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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what three tissues does gluconeogenesis take place?
Liver (major), kidney, small intestine
What two enzymes are used to convert pyruvate to PEP?
1) Pyruvate carboxylase
(pyruvate -> OAA)
2) PEP carboxykinase
(OAA -> PEP)
What molecule allosterically activates Pyruvate Carboxylase?
Acetyl CoA
What enzyme catalyzes the following gluconeogenic reaction:

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -> Fructose 6-phosphate
Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase
Which precursor molecules feed into the first the first gluconeogenic step of converting pyruvate to PEP?
1) Alanine (glucose-alanine cycle)
2) Lactate (glucose-lactate cycle)
3) Amino Acids

*Other AAs enter at different entry points
What molecule results from the addition of NH2 to pyruvate?

*This reaction occurs in the muscle during glucose-alanine cycle
How many ATP are consumed during gluconeogenesis of 1 glucose molecule?

*2 ATP generated during glycolysis of 1 glucose molecule
Where does the energy come from that drives gluconeogenesis?
Fatty acid catabolism
What affect does Acetyl CoA have on the following enzymes:
1) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase?
2) Pyruvate Carboxylase
1) Inhibition (PDH also inhibited by NADH)
2) Activation

*Acetyl CoA is product of FA B-oxidation. Goal now is to make more glucose.
What affect does glucagon have on PFK-2?
Inactivates PFK-2 by phosphorylation via PKA

*This allows Fructose-6-P to be in a higher concentration compared to Fructose-2,6-BP
In what three ways is GNG regulated?
1) Hormonal (glucagon/insulin)
2) Allosteric (ATP and ADP)
3) Substrate availability
Which three organs use ketone bodies for energy?
Muscle, Liver, Brain
Which adipose tissue enzyme frees fatty acids from TG in response to glucagon and epinephrine?
Hormone sensitive lipase

*low insulin/glucagon ratio -> cAMP -> PKA -> phosphorylation of HSL -> TG breakdown -> FA into blood bound to albumin -> Liver
What are the three lipases found in the body? Where are they located?
1) Pancreatic Lipase- secreted by pancreas into small intestine
2) Lipoprotein Lipase- lumen of capillaries
3) Hormone Sensitive Lipase- adipose tissue
Name the three ketone bodies formed in the liver.
1) Acetoacetate (4C)
2) B-hydroxybutyrate (4C)
3) Acetone (3C)
Why is B-hydroxybutyrate more energy-rich than acetoacetate?
B-hydroxyacetate is the reduced form of acetoacetate. To be used, it is converted to acetoacetate and forms NADH
What happens to acetyl CoA formed from fatty acid B-oxidation?
It is converted to ketone bodies and transported to other tissues
What is the regulating enzyme in ketone body synthesis?
HMG-CoA synthetase

*induced during a fast
What are the three forms of ketoacidosis?
1) Diabetic ketoacidosis
2) Alcoholic ketoacidosis
3) Starvation ketoacidosis