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26 Cards in this Set

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Fill in the missing areas in the aerobic cellular respiration equation.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> XXXXX + XXXXXX + XXXXXX
6CO2 + 6 H20 + Energy
Cellular respiration in the presense of O2 is called XXXXXXXX XXXXXXX.
Aerobic Respiration
Glycolysis is the decomposition of glucose to XXXXXXXX.
Pyruvate
In Glycolysis what molecules are added and what molecules are gained? (4)
1. 2 ATP invested
2. 2 NADH Produced
3. 4 ATP are produced
4. 2 Pyruvate are formed
Before Krebs cycle, pyruvate combines with XXXXX to form XXXXXXX.



What is also produced in that reaction

Ezyme CoA, Acetyl CoA, 1 NADH, 1CO2 per pyruvate
What happens in the Krebs cycle and what are its products
Pyruvate binds Oxaloacetate (OAA) to form Citrate which then forms 7 intermediate products:



Forms:


3NADH


1FADH2


1ATP


2CO2

XXXXXXXXX XXXXXX is the process of extracting ATP from NADH and FADH2. Also what is this step called?
Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs at electron transport chain.

Cellular respiration pathways graph

What are the carrier proteins generally referred to in the electron transport chain?
Cytochromes
NADH generates XXXXXX ATP while FADH2 generates XXXXXX ATP?
Three/Two
What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain? What does it become?
Oxygen, water
How many ATP can be theoretically made from one molecule of glucose? Is this number different from Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes?
36 eukaryotes/38 prokaryotes/ Yes because eukaryotes have to transfer the NADH created in the cytoplasm to the mitochondria which takes 2 ATP.
36 eukaryotes/38 prokaryotes/ Yes because eukaryotes have to transfer the NADH created in the cytoplasm to the mitochondria which takes 2 ATP.
What is the actual number of ATP that can be created per molecule of glucose? Why?
Around 30/Due to variations in mitochondrial efficiencies and competing biochemical processes.
What are the four areas of the mitochondria?
1. Outer Membrane
2. Intermembrane Space
3. Inner Membrane
4. Matrix
What two major processes of aerobic respiration occur in the mitochondria?
1. Kreb Cycle
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
What layer of the mitochondria do protons accumulate?
Intermembrane Space
What layer of the mitochondria does oxidative phosphorylation occur? What structure is present in this layer?
Inner Membrane/Cristae
Where does the Kreb cycle occur specifically during aerobic respiration in eukaryotes?
The Matrix of the Mitochondria
Chemiosmosis
ATP generation method from proton conc gradient
ATP synthase generates XXXXXX?
ATP
What are the two types of phosphorylation to produce ATP?
1. Substrate level Phosphorylation ( in glycolysis)
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
When there is no oxygen what must a cell do to produce ATP if it is an aerobe?
Anaerobic Respiration
What are two common pathways of anaerobic respiration?
1. Alcohol fermentation - yeast
2. Lactic Acid Fermentation - muscle
What is the objective of fermentation?
To release some NAD+ for use in glycolysis

What happens in alcohol fermentation

Pyruvate loses CO2 to become acetyladehyde which makes NAD+ which can feed back into glycolysis

What happens in lactic acid fermentation

Pyruvate makes lactate while making NAD+