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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Longitudinal Design

Study kids over long periods of time

Cohort Effects

Something about a group of people that make them unique from other groups

Cross-sectional designs

at the same time you are studying kids at different ages (Interview them all at one time)

Longitudinal-Sequential design

takes both designs and uses the advantages of both. You can test for practice an cohort effects

Correlational Method (r)

the measure of the relationship between 2 variables (the closer to 1 the correlation, the stronger the are correlated)

**Correlation does not indicate causation


the biological transmission of traits & characteristics through genes


Versions of genes that act across pairs of chromosomes

Ecological systems theory

focuses on the complex interplay of factors that influence....?


the child's day to day setting ( parents, siblings, friends, teachers)


the connections among microsystem influences (parental involvement with child's school)


aspects of the environment that indirectly influence child (extended family, parents job)


the characteristics of the culture or subculture in which the child lives (laws, culture, attitude)


changes over time: within the child, and at the micro/meso/exo/macrosystems. Time is an important factor!


environmental influences determine which genes are expressed

Behavioral genetics

the study of how genes and the environment interact to influence traits and behaviors

Heritability coefficient

the extent to which the differences among people elect heredity (genetic influence)

Stages of Prenatal Development

-period of zygote: fertilization-2 weeks

-Period of embryo: 2-8 weeks

-Period of fetus: 8 weeks to birth

Differentiation (period of zygote)

the process by which cells specialize and begin to take on different roles

amniotic sac

a fluid filled sac which surrounds and protects embryo (also helps with temperature management)


a mass of tissue that supplies oxygen and nutrients to embryo and carries away waste products (placenta and baby have same genetic material and make-up)

Umbilical cord

a cord containing blood vessels that connects the embryo to the placenta

at 8 weeks..

all organs and body systems are there (reproduction system lags a little bit) and they also work

age of viability

age at which baby could survive outside of womb. this is between 20-22 weeks


any substance that can cause damage during the prenatal period

what does alcohol effect in prenatal development?

effects the brain and face. Also leads to a lot of developmental disabilities

APGAR test

is given to newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. A quick quantitative way to check baby


are the line spaces between the plates on a babies head


the spaces (bigger than sutures) between the plates on a babies head


unlearned, automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation

Rooting reflex

brush something on the side of the baby's face and they turn their head (looking for nipple)

moro reflex

startle reflex

babinski reflex

run your finger down the baby bottom of foot and their toes face out

premature baby

child born 3 or more weeks prior to full term


birth weight is lower than 10th percentile for the number of weeks of pregnancy

birth defects

abnormality in structure, function, or metabolism present at birth that results in physical or mental disability, or is fatal

SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)

the sudden and unexplained death of a seemingly healthy infant (risk reduction--> have baby sleep on their back)