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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space


the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave


the number of waves that pass a given point per second


the wave's height from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough

electromagnetic spectrum

includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation: the types of radiation differ in their frequencies and wavelengths


the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom

Planck's constant

6.626*10^-34 J*s where J is the symbol for the joule

photoelectric effect

A phenomenon in which photo electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface


a mass less particle that carries a quantum of energy

atomic emission spectrum

a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors

ground state

the lowest allowable energy state of an atom

quantum number

the number assigned to each orbit of an electron

de Broglie equation

predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time

quantum mechanical model of the atom

an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model

atomic orbital

a three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location

principal quantum number

assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals

principal energy levels

the major energy levels of an atom

energy sublevels

the energy levels contained within a principal energy level

electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in an atom which is prescribed by three rules-the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule

aufbau principle

states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available

Pauli's exclusion princliple

states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins

Hund's rule

states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals

valence electrons

electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals

electron-dot structure

consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons