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48 Cards in this Set

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Acculturation/Melting Pot

The acquisition of the dominant culture's norms by a member of the nondominant culture. The nondominant culture typically loses its own culture, language, and sometimes religion in this process.


The acculturation of American norms and values. (replacing the old culture with the new American one)

Beyond the five factors:

1. Early start

2. Focus on reading and math

3. School size-small schools learn more

4. smaller classes

5. Increased learning time

6. teacher training

7. trust

8. parental involvement.

charter school/contract schools

First in Minnesota in 1991.

*tax supported public school that has legal permission.

*Local /state school board to operate a school/fixed period

*Can renew contract if the school is successful.

Charter schools typically...

*allows for new schools/conversion of existing schools

*prohibits admission tests

*is nonsectarian

*demonstrable improvements in performance

*can be closed due to performance

doesn't need to conform to state rules/regulations

*receives public funding based on number of kids enrolled

distance learning

Courses, programs, and training provided to students over long distances through television, the Internet, and other technologies.

Edison Schools

The Edison schools are the largest for-profit venture in public schools. Part of privatization.

Economic Reconstructionist

Belief the schools generally teach the poorer classes to accept their lowly stations in life, to be subservient to authority, to unquestioningly follow rules while laboring for the economic benefit of the rich.


A charter advocate that consists of business people who believe that efficiency can convert schools into untapped profit centers. They believe that you can teach students and still make a profit for investors.

full service school

Can be public or charter schools

*provide a network of social services from nutrition and health care to parental education and transportation

*designed to support the comprehensive educational needs of children.

green schools

Schools that offer healthier learning environments with clean air and water, nourishing and natural foods, nontoxic cleaners, and more outdoor activities. Academic performance often improves in green schools, and absenteeism decreases.

A growing trend (but a longtime practice) of parents educating their children at home, due to safety/drugs/peer pressure, religious or philosophical reasons.


Homeschool parents who focus on imparting certain values. They create a homeschool where they choose the curriculum, create the rules, enforce a schedule and promote their beliefs, usually religious beliefs.

John Goodlad

He said parents, teachers, and students rank four main goals "very important."

*academic - broad array if knowledge

*social/civic - skills and behavior for participating in a complex democratic society

*vocational - aimed at readiness for the world of work and economic responsibilities

personal - development of individual talent and self-expression


Knowledge is Power Program-how to make inner city schools work. ***********************************************************************************************************************

Knowledge Is Power

5 principles (KIPP)

1. More time - long days/year

2. High Expectations - parents sign contracts guaranteeing involvement

3. choice and commitment - Everyone CHOOSES to be there

4. Power to lead - principals have full control over budget/personnel.

5. Focus on results - high scores on state tests, and graduate ( Most are African American and Hispanic.

magnet school

*Usually located in black neighborhoods - whites would travel to the schools

*while affording unique educational specialties, such as science, math, and the performing arts.

The 1971 ruling in Lemon v. Kurtzman.


1)Must have a secular purpose

2)Must not primarily advance or prohibit religion

3)Must not result in excessive government entanglement with religion

The Lemon Test

What do we call the three criteria determining the legality of government funds used in religious schools?

Merit pay

A salary system that bases a teacher's pay on performance.

Milton Friedman

Economist from the 1950s who wants to shut down poor performing schools; believed local public schools are weak, neighborhood children are trapped, so the local school had no incentive to improve. Marketplace idea - compitition creates better schools.

A Nation at Risk

The Imperative for Education Reform A 1983 federal report that characterized U.S. schools as mediocre, putting the nation at risk of losing economic and technological ground to other countries. The report called for renewed emphasis on core academic subjects and ushered in the era of "back to basics" education.

norm-referenced tests

Tests that compare individual students with others in a designated norm group. ***************************************************************

objective-referenced tests

Tests that measure whether students have mastered a designated body of knowledge rather than how they compare with other students in a norm group.

open enrollment

Minnesota (1988) - The practice of permitting students to attend the school of their choice within their school system. It is sometimes associated with magnet schools and desegregation efforts.

Paulo Freire

Contemporary Economic Reconstructionist and author of The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. A book about efforts to educate and liberate poor, illiterate people in Brazil.


Homeschool Parents who are motivated to offer a more effective education than what is available in public school, they are dissatisfied the quality of their neighborhood schools are called

pretend attend.

Students who are physically present in class but are not intellectually engaged are referred to as *****************************************

Beleif that private, for-profit involvement in the management of public agencies, including schools.

Purpose of school

Focus on science, math and technology so we can compete with countries like India and China.

To transmit society's knowledge and values and reconstruct society.

Teachers with low student expectations offer:


1. Fewer opportunities to respond

2. Less praise

3. Less challenging work

4. Few nonverbal signs (eye contact, smiles, positive regard)

Pygmalion in the Classroom 1969 by Rosenthal and Jacobson

They popularized the term "self-fulfilling prophecy" and revealed that students may learn as much or as little as teachers expect.

Reconstructionists/Social reconstruction
This is a view of education as a way to improve the quality of life, to reduce the chances of conflict, and to create a more humane world. Successful students and citizens ready to make change by transforming injustices. Sees students as citizens ready to make change by transforming injustices.


A charter advocate who wants to expand public school options, create a positive option for parents and children and perhaps promote a specific approach that is more student centered. They get positive reports in the press.

Service Credit

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching recommends every student be required to volunteer with the poor, the elderly, or the homeless. REASON: reduce social ills, provide students with a connection to the larger community.

Social Action Curriculum

Students actively involve themselves in eliminating social ills. EX: Students in Baltimore made a photo exhibit of decaying buildings, broken items and mold in schools in which they invited and showed the pics to state legislators.

Social democratic reconstruction

Civic learning - educating student for democracy - needs to be on par with other academic subjects

successful schools

These schools utilize faculty and staff to identify potential problems with students before they become more serious.

Teacher performance

Bases teacher pay raises on outside observations. ***************************************************************************************************************


A system of employment in which teachers, having served a probationary period, acquire an expectancy of continued employment. The majority of states have tenure laws.

Tom Watkins lists these types of charter


Reformers, zealots and entrepreneurs

Traditional five-factor theory

of effective schools- linked

to successful schools

1. Strong Leadership

2. A Clear School mission

3. A safe and orderly climate

4. Monitoring student progress

5. High Expectations

"unilateral educational disarmament."

A Nation at Risk charged that the United States had been committing

Value added
A statistical measure showing the contribution of teachers and schools toward growth in student achievement.

These measures are increasingly used to determine which teachers are rewarded and which teachers are replaced.

virtual schools - A type of distance education offered through the Internet. Virtual schools provide asynchronous learning and may offer specialized courses not typically found in traditional schools.


*like a coupon, and it represents money targeted for schools.

*in this system, parents use this to "shop" for a school.

*Schools receive part or all of their per-pupil funding back

*In theory, good schools would thrive and poor ones would close for lack of students.


A charter advocate who promotes more conservative schools and who typically do not like teacher unions. They emphasize traditional curricular ideas and teacher-centered classrooms

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris

In this ruling, the Supreme Court ruled in 2002 that the use of publicly funded vouchers to attend private religious schools does not violate the separation of church and state.