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118 Cards in this Set

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joints:


-aka


-definition (2)

-articulations


-


1. link bones into a functional whole: supports body, effective movement & protect organs


2. any point where 2 bones meet, whether or not the bones are movable at that interface

arthrology

all that dealing with joint structure

kinesiology

all that dealing with musculoskeletal skeletal movement

biomechanics

varied body movement and mechanics

the name of a joint is typically derived from...

the names of the bones invovled

list the 3 joints

1. bony joint


2. fibrous joint


3. cartilaginous joint


4. synovial joint

bony joints: aka, def, example (3)

- aka synostosis




immovable joint formed when the gap btw 2 bones ossifies (forming bone) & they become a single bone




Can form from ossification of either fibrous or cartilaginous joints




example:


1.Frontal and mandibular bones in infants


2. Cranial sutures in elderly


3.Attachment of first rib to the sternum becomes synopsis with age



fibrous joints

-aka synarthorosis or synarthrodial




collagen fibers that bound adjacent bones; there are 3 types: 1. sutures 2. gomphoses 3. syndesmoses

sutures

immobile or only slightly movable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other (they occur nowhere else)




There are 3 types of sutures: serrate, lap (squamous) & plane (butt)

serrate suture and an examples

-wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly interlock with each other, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle


-the coronal, sagittal & lambdoid sutures that border the parietal bones

lap sutures and an example

-occur where 2 bones have overlapping beveled edges, like miter joint in carpentry. On the surface, a lap suture appears as a relatively smooth (non serrated) line


-the squamous suture between the temporal & parietal bones

what is the difference in the fiber lengths of the following: sutures, gomphoses & syndesmoses and the result of that

in sutures and gomphoses, the fibers are very short & allow for little or no movement




in syndesmoses, the fibers are longer & the attached bones are more movable

plane and example

when 2 bones have straight, non overlapping edges. The 2 bones merely border on each other, like 2 boards glued together




ex: between the palatine processes of the maxillae in the roof of the mouth

gomphoses

the attachment of a bone to its socket (similar to a nail hammered into wood)




ex: the attachment of tooth (although not considered bones) to its socket. Tooth held firmly in place by periodontal ligament (with collagen fibers that extend from the bone matrix of the jaw into the dental tissue). Periodontal ligament allows tooth to move or give a little under stress of chewing, which allows us to feel sensations as we chew.

syndesmoses

a fibrous joint at which 2 bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers. The separation btw bone and fiber length give these joints more mobility than a suture or gomphosis has.




An esp very movable syndesmoses is between the shafts of the radius & ulna




A less movable syndesmoses is the one that binds the distal ends of the tibia & fibula together, side by side

cartilaginous joint: aka

-amphiarthrodial or amphiarthrosis


- 2 bones are linked by cartilage. The 2 types are:


1. synchondroses


2. symphyses

synchondroses and example (2)

joint in which the bones are bound by hyaline cartilage




-ex:


1. temporary joint between the epiphysis & diaphysis of a long bone in a child


2. attachment of the first rib to the sternum by a hyaline costal cartilage



symphyses and example

2 bones are joined by fibrocartilage




-ex: pubic symphysis; the joint between the bodies of 2 vertebrae, untied by an intervertebral disc

synovial joint: aka

-aka diarthosis or diarthrodial joint




it's the most familiar type of joint & the most structurally complex & the most free moving

synovial joint general anatomy

-the facing surfaces are covered with articular cartilage (layer of hyaline cartilage).


-the surfaces are separated by a narrow space, the joint (articular) cavity, containing a slippery lubricant called synovial fluid (it's rich in albumin & hyaluronic acid), which nourishes the articular cartilage, removes its waste & makes movements at the synovial joints almost friction free.


-connective tissue, joint (articular) capsule, encloses the cavity & retains the fluid


-it has an outer fibrous capsule continuous with the periosteum of the adjoining bones, and an inner cellular synovial membrane (composed mainly of fibroblast-like cells that secrete the fluid & is populated by macrophages that remove debris from the joint cavity)

what are the 2 types of fibrocartilage within the synovial joints

1. Articualar disc: goes all across


2. Meniscus: partial

what are the 3 accessory ligaments and describe them

1. Tendon: attaches muscle to bone


2. Ligament: attaches one bone to another


3. Bursa: fibrous sac with synovial fluid where a tendon passes over bone, or between bone and skin


4. Tendon (synovial) sheath: bursae wrapped around tendon (esp in hand and feet)

when does rotation occur

when an effort applied to one point on the lever overcomes resistance (load) at some other point

first class lever and an example

the fulcrum in the middle (EFR)




ex: altano-occipital joint of the neck

second class lever and an example

resistance is in the middle (FRE)




ex: raising knee as you sit

third class lever and example

effort applied between the fulcrum and resistance (REF)




ex: most musculoskeletal levers are this; elbow flexing & forearm

range of motion

degrees thorough which a joint can move

what are the 6 classes of synovial joints, what axials they move on and an example

1. ball & socket: multi-axial: humeroscapula (shoulder) & hip joints


2. condylar: biaxial: metacarpophalanges (knuckles) & wrist


3. hinge: monoaixal: humeroulnar (elbow) & interphalangeal (joint w/in fingers)


4. plane: nonaxial: intercarpel (w/in wrist) & intertarsel (w/in ankle)


5. pivot: monoaxial: radioulnar


6, saddle: monoaxial: trapeziometacarpel & carpometacarpel (joints of the thumb) [thumb movement]

zero position

when one is standing in anatomical position, each joint is said to be in this position. Joint movements can be described as deviating from the zero position or returning to it

flexion

movement that decreases a joint angle, usually in the sagittal plane


esp common at hinge joints

extension

movement that straightens a joint and generally returns body back to the zero position

abduction

movement of the body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body




ex: moving feet apart to stand spread-legged or raising arm to the side of the body

adduction

movement of the body part in the frontal plane back towards the midline of the body





hyperadduct

crossing




ex: crossing fingers or crossing ankles in front of each other

hyperabduct your arm means to...

raise it high enough to cross slightly over the front or back of your head

when you reach in front of you to push a door open, your shoulder __________

protracts

your shoulder __________ when you return it the the resting (zero) position or pull the shoulders back to stand at military attention

refreacts

rowing a boat requires _______ & ________ of the shoulders

protraction & refraction

drawing a circle involves ____________

circumduction

if you stand with bent elbow and move your forearm to place your palm against your abdomen, your humorous spins in a motion called ____________.

medial (internal) rotation

if you make the opposite motion, so the forearm points away from the body, your humerus exhibits _______________.

lateral (external) rotation

anterior

the front; facing upward

posterior

the back; facing downward

supination

turns the palm to face anterior (facing upward)

pronation

turns the plan to face posterior (facing downward)

lateral flexion

tilting the head or trunk to the left or right of the midline

lateral excursion

side to side movement of the mandible (movement to the left or right of the zero position)

medial excursion

movement back to the median, zero position

ulnar flexion

tilt the hand towards the little finger

radial flexion

tilt it toward the thumb

radial abduction

move your thumb away from the index finger so they form a 90 degree angle

opposition

move the thumb to touch the tip of any of the other fingers

reposition

return to zero position from opposition

dorsiflexion

movement in which the toes are elevated, as when one applies toe nail polish

plantar flexion

movement of the foot so the toes point downward, as in pressing the gas pedal of a car or standing on tiptoes

inversion

foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other

eversion

movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing away from each other

what is the other name of the jaw joint


what does the joint consist of


what are its ligaments

-temporomandibular joint (TMJ)


-the articulation of the condyle of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone


- lateral ligament & sphenomandibular ligament



what is the other name of the shoulder joint


what does the joint consist of


what is the cavity of the shoulder called



-glenohumeral (humeroscapular) joint


- where the hemispherical head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula


-glenoid labrum (its a ring of fibrocartilage)

what is does the rotator cuff consist of

the tendons of 4 muscles: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor & subscapularis (they are all fused to the joint except on the inferior side)

what are the ligaments of the shoulder joint

5 principal ligaments: glenohumeral ligament ( 3 of these), coracohumeral ligament & traverse humeral ligament

what are the bursar of the shoulder joint

subdeltoid, subcromial, subcoracoid & subcapular

what joints do the elbow consist of

humeroulnar joint, humeroradial joint & proximal radioulnar joint

what is the bursa of the elbow

olecranon bursa

what ligaments are involved in the elbow joint


radial (lateral) collateral ligament, ulnar (medial) collateral ligament & anular ligament

-what is the other name of the hip joint


-the deeply cut _______________ that receives the head of the femur is enhanced by a circular rim of fibrocartilage called the _____________.

-coxal joint


-acetabulum; acetabular labrum

what are the ligaments of the hip bone

iliofemoral ligament, pubofemural ligament & ischiofemoral ligament, round ligament (aka ligamentum teres) & tranverse acetabular ligament

what is the head of the femur's conspicuous pit called

fovea capitis

does the round ligament secure the femoral head

no because it's slack

what is the other name of the knee joint and what type of joint is it

tibiofemoral joint [it's the largest & most complex diathesis of the body]; it's a hinge joint

what are the joints of the knee joint

tibiofemoral joint, patellofemoral joint (the patella & patellar ligament also articulate with the femur to form this)

the jaw joint is the articulation of which 2 bones

mandible & temporal bone

the rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except _____________, which explains in part the nature of most shoulder dislocations

interiorly

Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ______________ joint

elbow

which is the most stable joint

coxal joint

which is the largest and most complex diarthrosis

knee

The ________________ deepens the socket of the hip joint and helps stabilize the joint.

acetabular labrum

What structure in the knee prevents hyperextension?

the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

the talocrural joint is a meeting of which bones

tibia, fibula & talus

describe the posterior popliteal region of the knee

it's supported by extracapsular ligaments [supported by 2 collateral ligaments that prevent the knee from rotating when the joint is extended: fibular (lateral) collateral ligament & tibial (medial) collateral ligament) ]& 2 intracapsular ligaments (these ligaments cross each other in the form of an X: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) & posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

what are the 4 anterior bursae of the knee joint

superfical infrapatellar, suprapatellar, prepatellar and deep infrapatellar

infra-

below, under

supra-

above, over

what side is the tibia on

medial (inside) side

what side is the fibula on

lateral (outside) side

what is the other name of the ankle joint

talocrural joint

what are the 4 ligaments of the ankle responsible for and what they bind to

1. anterior & posterior tibiofibular ligaments: bind the tibia to the fibula


2. medial (deltoid) ligament: binds the tibia to the foot on the medial side


3. lateral (collateral) ligament: binds the fibula to the foot on the lateral side

what part of the ankle plantarflexes the foot and limits dorsiflexion

the calcaneal (achilles) tendon

explain how the biceps tendon braces the shoulder joint

The biceps tendon attaches the biceps muscle to the shoulder and helps to stabilize the joint

what keeps the femur from slipping backward off the tibia

PCL (posterior cruciate ligament)

what keeps the tibia from slipping sideways off the talus?

medial joint

arthritis

broad term for joint rhematism

bursitis

inflammation of bursa, usually due to overeat of a joint

dislocation

displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint, usually accompanied by a sprain of the adjoining connective tissues.

gout

a hereditary disease, most common in men, in which uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints and irritate the articular cartilage and synovial membrane

rheumatism

broad term for any pain in the supportive & locomotory organs of the body (includes bones, ligaments, tendons & muscles)

sprain

torn ligament or tendon, sometimes with damage to a meniscus or other cartilage

strain

painful over stretching of a tendon or muscle without serious tissue damage

synovitis

inflammation of a joint capsule, often as a complication of a sprain

tendinitis

a form of bursitis in which a tendon sheath is inflamed

unlike other joints, a ___________ joint doesn't join 2 bones to each other

gomphosis

what type of doctor treats arthritis

rhematologist

which can you overextend: the wrist or the elbow

the wrist

what type of joint is between L2 & L3

symphysis

suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. What are the fingers doing?

adduction of the fingers

man raises his chin to shave his neck is what motion

hyperextention of the neck

stand on tiptoes __________________ at the ankle

plantar flexion

your shoulders _______________ when you reach to push a revolving door

protract

monoaxial joint like the elbow is capable of which one of the following movements

flexion & extension

some joints become synostoses by the replacement of ________________.

fibers with bone

"wear & tear" arthritis is ___________________

osteoarthritis

the pubic bones deal with what type of joints

symphysis

ulna & humerus is an example of what type of lever

first class lever

the elbow is both which 2 type of joints

hinge and pivot joints

the menisci of the knee are functionally similar to the ___________________.

articular disc

what is the joint between parietal bones

sagittal suture

what is the joint between the frontal bone & parietal bones

coronal suture

what is the joint between the parietal bone & the temporal bone

squamous suture