• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


a partial degradation (break down) of sugars or other organic fuel that occurs without the use of oxygen.

when sugars are broken down on their own.

aerobic respiration

respiration in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel (like sugars, fats, or starches) to release energy.

oxygen combines with organic fuel to make energy.

anaerobic respiration

respiration without oxygen-- a catabolic pathway in which oxygen is not consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel-- includes alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.

energy is released without the use of oxygen to mix with organic fuel


loss of electrons (OIL RIG) - Oxidation Is Loss

electrons are given to the other side so that the other side does reduction


gain of electrons (oil RIG) - Reduction Is Gain

electrons are taken from the other side so that the other side does oxidation

reducing agent

the electron donor in a redox reaction gives an e- (is oxidized) to reduce the other reactant.

the oxidized side allows the other to be reduced

oxidizing agent

the electron acceptor in a redox reaction, gets an e- from other reactant (is reduced), to oxidize other reactant.

the reduced side allows the other side to oxidize


Electron Taxi. Main electron carrier (acceptor) of respiration. Switches easily between NAD+=oxidized (lost e-); NADH=reduced (gains e-). Gets reduced by gaining 2 e- and H+ from glucose breakdown. A derivative of the vitamin niacin.

Becomes oxidized by losing an electron in the breakdown of glucose and then reduced by gaining 2.

electron transport chain

3rd step of respiration: A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane molecules) that use electron energy dropped off by electron taxis (NADH, FADH2) to pump H+ out in the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

These molecules use the energy from electron taxis to make energy

Krebs (citric acid) cycle

2nd step of respiration: 8 step cycle where enzymes help pyruvate to be oxidized to remove electron energy and carbon.


1st step of respiration: molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of puryvic acid (glycol=sugar, lysis= breaking). Produces 2 net ATP and 2 NADH (electron energy); most energy still in pyruvate.

oxidative phosporylation

The production of ATP at ATP synthase using energy from the H+ is pumped out during the electron transport chain. Oxygen is final electron acceptor (oxidative) and energy of electrons is used to phosphorylate (add a phoshorus) to ADP to ATP to store energy.

Oxygen is used to add phosporus to store ATP

substrate level phosporylation

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

ATP is made when a phosphate group is moved to ADP.


Diffusion of chemicals (H+ protons) in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP.

As protons move through the membrane, ATP is created.

proton motive force

the potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of H+ (hydrogen) ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.

potential energy stored by pumping of hydrogen moving through the membrane.

alcohol fermentation

The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol-- a form of anaerobic respiration.

When pyruvate turns into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.

lactic acid fermentation

The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of CO2-- a form of anaerobic respiration.

When pyruvate turns into lactate, no CO2 release

Mitochondria Structure and Function

-Outer membrane

-Inner membrane (proteins of electron transport chain are here)

-Intermembrane space (H+ pumped out from ETC builds up high concentration here)

-Crista (folds of inner membrane increase surface area for ETC proteins)

-Matrix (cytoplasm fluid inside the inner membrane)