Fermentation Case Study

Overview of Fermentation
Fermentation is looked as an anaerobic process. The process breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen. The energy released from glucose would convert into acids, gases or alcohol. Fermentation would take place when the electron transport chain would not be used. Fermentation would occur in yeast cells, bacteria and in muscle cells of animals. For most methods of fermentation metabolism, glycolysis would involve the breaking down of 6 carbons into two phosphoglyceraldehydes then to biphosphoglycerate by putting energy into the process. Electrons are removed from an organic molecule (carbon) and given to NAD. NAD+ would always reduce to NADH. An inorganic phosphate would attach to the carbon bringing it to biphosphoglycerate
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The environment was low in oxygen without an external electron acceptor. There are two kinds of lactate fermentation. Homolactic fermenters produced majority lactic acid. This type used EMP to reduce all pyruvate to lactate by way of lactate dehydrogenase (Rawls 2014). Heterolactic fermenters formed lactic acid and other products other than lactate by using the phosphoketolase pathway. The lactic acid would be excreted by the cells into the environment (Battcock 1998). Two different types of fermentation pathways could be used linear or branched. The linear fermentation pathway resulted with the product being formed and the substrate consumed ratio would be constant, resulting in ATP gain. Branched fermentation pathway showed the product formed and the substrate consumed ration would be variable, resulting in more ATP and oxidized products which require H2 (Rawls 2014). The ideal fermentation process for making yogurt was the Homolactic fermentation. The ideal pathway would be the linear fermentation pathway for …show more content…
It was around this time that the study of microbes became its own science. Many scientists played a big role in the development of microbiology. One of the first was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch drapery merchant. He used a microscope to view pond water, to study the microbes. Louis Pasteur is often remembered for his great work in fermentation and its microbial causes. He advanced microbiology by disapproving the theory of spontaneous generation and developing methods of vaccinating against viruses. The work of these great scientists shows that fermentation was generally the result of the action of living microorganism was an epic breakthrough, it did not explain the basic nature of the fermentation process, or prove that it was caused by the microorganisms that were apparently always

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