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21 Cards in this Set

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The cognitive and affective process of perceiving the emotions others are feeling and then acting on our perception

Perspective taking

Empathizing by using everything we know about our partner and our partners circumstances to help us understand how he or she is feeling.

Empathetic responsiveness also called empathetic distress

Empathizing by personally experienced an emotional response parallel to another person's actual or anticipated display of emotion.

Sympathetic responsiveness also called emotional concern

Empathizing by feeling concern, compassion, or sorrow for another person because he or she is in a distressing situation but not identifying with a specific emotion he or she is experiencing.

Social support

The process of providing emotional, informational, and instrumental resources to someone we perceive is in need of this aid.

Supportive messages

Communications that provide intangible support for your partner, including emotional support, information, advice, and motivation.


The process of sharing our success in leveraging the good feelings that come from them by telling others with the expectation that they will celebrate with us.

Celebratory messages

Active constructive feedback whose goal is to leverage your partner's positive feelings that stem from a happy event or accomplishment.

Comforting messages

Active constructive feedback whose goal is to alleviate or lessen the emotional distress felt by someone else.

Supportive interaction

A conversation or series of conversations in which messages of support are offered to someone.

Clarifying supportive intentions

Openly stating that one's goal in a support of interaction is to help the person in need of support.

Face threatening act FTA

A statement of support that a person in need may interpret as a threat to his or her public self image.

Face work

The messages that we sent with the goal of maintaining or restoring another person sense of self worth.

positive Face work

Messages that a firm a person or a person's actions in a difficult situation to protect his or her respectability and public approval.

Negative face work

Messages that offer information, opinion, or advice that protect a person's freedom and privacy.

Theory of conversationally induced reappraisals

The premise that people experience emotional stress when they believe that their current situation is at odds of their life goals and that to reduce emotional distress and move forward, people use conversations to reconcile what has happened to them.

Other centered messages

Communications that focus on the needs of the person requiring support through active listening and expressions of compassion, understanding, and encouragement.

Framing information

Providing support by offering information, observations, and opinions that enable the receiver to better understand or see his or her situation in a different light.


A message or series of messages intended to help another person manage or solve a problem.

Transcorporeal communication

A process through which a living person sends a digital message to a deceased person through a website or social networking site.


Supporting others begins with being able to empathize. Empathizing is the cognitive and effective process of preceding the emotions others are feeling and then acting on our perceptions. It is shown through empathetic responsiveness, perspective-taking, and sympathetic responsiveness. Empathizing requires taking the time to empathize, observing and reading the nonverbal messages sent by others by asking questions and paraphrasing, and employee one of the three types of empathy. Social support is the process of providing emotional, informational, and instrumental resources to someone we perceive in need of the shade. Support of messages are communications that provide intangible support for your partner including emotional support, information, advice, and motivation. We can support peoples positive feelings was celebratory messages or support their negative feelings with comforting messages. Effective comforting messages have different characteristics than in effective ones. Although we can attempt to comfort a person with a single supportive comment, more often our support requires a longer conversation or series of conversations over days, months, or years. Regardless of their length, support of interactions typically go through four phases. Research has identified five supportive message skills: clarifying support of intentions, buffering face threats with positive and negative face work, using other center for messages, framing information, and giving advice. Online therapy, support groups, and social networking sites may be effective vehicles for achieving and providing support. The desire to be comforted appears to be universal, with little substantial difference reported between men and women or across cultures. People who experience stress and crises are increasingly turning to social media as new avenues of support. Digital support create a social distance that free some people to disclose problems that they would be uncomfortable talking about in face-to-face context. The number of individuals who participate in an online support group and hands opportunities to receive support from people who experienced the same situation. Individuals for apprehensive communicating in face-to-face settings benefit greatly from receiving support through social media.