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23 Cards in this Set

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Know what makes a molecule organic and why carbon is so good at forming compounds.

Carbon makes it organic and it's good at forming compounds because it has 4 valence electrons

Know what a monomer and polymer is and how they are formed and broken down (examples of monomers)

Monomers: simple molecules that make up polymers(large organic molecules)


Condensation: waters comes out and links molecules together


Hydrolysis: breaks polymers apart by adding water to it

Carbohydrates can also be called what?

Sugars

What are the monomers of carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides

know the difference between a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide.

Monosaccharides: have 1 carbon ring


Disaccharide: 2 carbon rings


Polysaccharide: more than 2 carbon rings

know the 3 most important monosaccharides in living organisms

Glucose(C6H12O6)


Ribose- backbone of RNA


Deoxyribose-backbone of DNA

Know the four different forms of polysaccharides(polymers) addressed and their function.

Starch- glucose stored in plants


Glycogen-glucose stored in animals


Cellulos-in plant wall(makes strong)


Chitin- makes exoskeleton

Know the deference between fats and oils

Fats are soild, oils are liquid


Fats from animals, oil from plants

Know the monomers that makes them lipids

Fatty acids (has COOH at the end)

Know the monomers that makes them lipids

Fatty acids (has COOH at the end)

Know components of the different lipid polymers

Triglycerides(fats/oils): 3 fatty acids; one glycerol back bone


Phospholipids:phosphate head and 2 fatty acids


Steroids: 4 carbon rings fused together

know what makes a compound a fatty acids and the difference between saturated, unsaturated and trans and cis fats.

Saturated: no double bonds between atoms


Unsaturated:has a double bond


CIS: H on same side


TRANS:H on opposite sides

How do DNA &RNA differ

DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded


DNA has nitrogen bases: AT CG RNA bases are CG AU


DNA- genetic material RNA-dif functions


DNA stays in nucleus, RNA can leave nuclus

Know the complementary base pairs.

DNA: GC,AT RNA: GC,AU

Phospholipids- Know the basic structure of a phospholipid and where it is found in cells.

Structure: phosphate head( loves water) hydrophilic with hydrophobic tail; found in cell membrane

Steroids- examples

Cholesterol, Testosterone, Estrogen

know what monomers proteins are made of and what type of bond holds them together.

Amino acids, held by peptide bonds

know the three structural components of an amino acid.

Structural(keratin/collagen), Enzymes, Hormones, act as channels in cell membrane , antibodies

Know the 4 levels of organization of proteins

Primary structure(straight lines); Secondary structure, Helix, Alpha Helix(coil), Beta cheet(folds);tertiary structure(two secondary bonded)


4th level folds more(Quaternary)

Know how a protein can be denatured(lose function)

Extreme heat or Extreme pH

Know the function of an enzyme

To lower activation energy of a reactant

Know what the monomers of nucleic acid

RNA & DNA

Know structure of a nucleotide(3 components)

Nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate