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32 Cards in this Set

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4 types of biomolecules

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

What makes a molecule organic?

if it contains carbon

Why is carbon so good at making compounds?

It has 4 valence electrons to form covalent bonds with.

Monomer

simple organic molecule that exists individually- makes up polymers

Polymer

large organic molecules formed by combining monomers

Another name for Carbohydrates

Sugars

Monomers of Carbohydrates

Carbon rings

Monosaccharides

One individual ring; glucose

Disaccharides

2 carbon rings that are bonded together; sucrose, lactose

Polysaccharides

more than 2 carbon rings

3 Most Important Monosaccharides in Living Organisms

Glucose, ribose, deoxyribose

four different forms of polysaccharides(polymers) addressed and their function.

Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants, glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals, Cellulose- is found in the cell walls of plants, Chitin- found in the exoskeleton of crabs, structural polysaccharide

differences between fats and oils.

Fats usually come from animals, and oils come from plants. Fats are solids at room temp, oils are liquid at room temp

components of the different lipid polymersTriglycerides

One glyceride backbone, three fatty acids

know what makes a compound a fatty acid

Fatty acid- COOH at the end

the difference between saturated, unsaturated

Saturated means a molecule has the maximum number of bonds in it. (4) no double bonds.

Cis

hydrogens are on the same sides

Trans

hydrogens on opposite sides.

basic structure of a phospholipid and where it is found in cells.

Has a phosphate group in it, has 2 fatty acid tails. Located in cell membrane

Steroids- know examples

4 carbon rings that are stuck together




Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen

know what monomers proteins are made of and what type of bond holds them together

amino acids. peptide bond

three structural components of an amino acid.

Amino group (-NH2) Acidic group (-COOH) R group varies

functions proteins can have in a cell

enzyme- helps speed up chemical reaction

know the 4 levels of organization of proteins

Primary- a linear sequence (line)Secondary- Alpha helix (spiral), beta sheets (sticky note)Tertiary- Quaternary-

denatured

broken down

know how a protein can be denatured

When exposed to extreme heat or pH

know the function of an enzyme

Speed up chemical reactions

Know what the monomers of nucleic acids are

nucleotide

know the two types of nucleic acid.

deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid

know the structure of a nucleotide (3 components).

Phosphate, pentose sugar ribose- RNA/deoxyribose-DNA, nitrogen- containing base

know how DNA and RNA differ.

RNA is single stranded, DNA double helix in 2 strands

know the complementary base pairs.

know the complementary base pairs.