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36 Cards in this Set

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The period of time after the Civil War in which southern states were rebuilt and brought back into the Union.

Thirteenth Amendment

A change to the Constitution ratified in 1865 abolishing slavery in the United States.

Freedmen's Bureau

An agency established by Congress at the end of the Civil War to help and protect newly freed black Americans.

black codes

Laws passed in 1855 and 1856 in the former Confederate states to limit the rights and freedoms of African Americans.

civil rights

The rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all people as citizens especially equal treatment under the law.

Fourteenth Amendment

A change to the Constitution ratified in 1868 granting citizenship to anyone born int he US and guaranteeing all citizens equal protection of law.

Fifteenth Amendment

A change to the Constitution ratified in 1870 declaring that states cannot deny anyone the right to vote because of race or color or because the person was once a slave.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws enforcing segregation of blacks and whites in the South after the Civil War.

What did Americans long for by the end of the Civil War?


How did President Abraham Lincoln want the South to be treated?

With kindness and justice.

Who became president when Lincoln was killed?

Andrew Johnson

What did Reconstruction mean to President Johnson?

The southern states had to create new governments loyal to the Union and had to abolish slavery.

What did a former Confederate state have to do in order to rejoin the Union?

Write a new state constitution, elect a new state government, repeal its act of secession, and cancel its war debts.

Additionally, what did every southern state have to ratify?

The 13th Amendment

What did the 13th Amendment do?

Abolished slavery in the US

What was the purpose of the Freedmen's Bureau?

It was created to assist former slaves.

How would the Freedmen's Bureau assist former slaves?

It would arrange for wages and good working conditions as well as ensure education.

Why were Black Codes put into effect?

To control former slaves.

What did the Black Codes do?

Limited the rights of freedmen, help planters find replacements for their slaves, and keep freedmen at the bottom of the social order in the South.

What did the 14th Amendment do?

The 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born in the US.

How did President Johnson feel about the 14th Amendment?

He was opposed to it.

What did Military Reconstruction do?

It divided the South into 5 military districts.

What was the structure of the government in these military districts?

These districts would form legal state governments made up of Southerners loyal to the US.

What group of people made up the South's largest group of new voters?

African Americans

What party did most of these African Americans join?

The Republican Party

What did the 15th amendment guarantee?

Every male citizen was guaranteed the right to vote.

How did most whites in the South feel about the Southern Reconstruction Governments?

They resented them. They didn't like seeing former slaves voting or holding public office.

What was done to help white democrats regain power?

Secret societies were formed.

What is an example of one of these secret societies?

The Ku Klux Klan

What did Congress do to help combat violence against African Americans?

Congress passed the Enforcement Acts which made it illegal to prevent another person from voting.

What was the effect of a poll tax being implemented?

Voting became a luxury that many blacks could not afford.

What were the acts called that reversed the outlawing of segregation by drawing a color line between blacks and whites?

Jim Crow Laws

What was the finding in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896?

The Supreme Court decided that segregation laws did not violate the 14th amendment as long as facilities available to both races were roughly equal.

How did many African Americans respond to segregation?

Many left the South.

What were they pulled by?

The lure of better opportunities and more equal treatment.

Most African Americans remained in the South. What did they do to make the best of their situation?

They worked hard in their families, churches, and to build communities.