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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

bully pulpit

- new policy by Roosevelt

- consists of speaking around nation to create a forum for ideas

William Howard Taft

- Secretary of State under Roosevelt

- Roosevelt's hand-picked successor

- later Roosevelt's rival due to ambivalence

- moderate conservation Republican

Oliver Wendell Holmes

- Supreme Court justice

- ultra-conservative

- believer in constitutional purity

Northern Securities Company

- railroad holding company

- disintegrated by Supreme Court

Coal Miners of America


- union formed by workers in Pennsylvania

Elihu Root

- Secretary of State under Roosevelt

The Jungle

- book exposing ills of meatpacking industry

- spurs fed investigation by demand of American people


- Department of Commerce established

- Department of Labor established

Elkins Act


- prohibits railroad rebates

- moderately increases ICC ability to regulate

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

- first, weaker Anti-Trust Act

- used to dissolve Northern Securities Company

Hepburn Act


- strengthens ICC

- gives ICC right to make set rates of inter-state business

- widens ICC jurisdiction to include oil pipelines

Meat Inspection Act


- sets rules for sanitary meatpacking

- requires gov inspection of meat products

Pure Food and Drug Act


- requires food & drug manufacturers to label certain ingredients

- requires FDA inspection of food & drugs

National Conservation Congress


- org for 1st comprehensive conservation policy

- established by Theo Roosevelt

- led by Gifford Pinchot

- quadruples acreage under federal protection

- supported greatly by American people

1908 election

- Democrats run William Jennings Bryan

- Republicans run William Howard Taft

- William Howard Taft wins

Payne-Aldritch Act


- establishment of lower tariff on some items & higher tariff on others

- provokes progressive Republicans to break w/ William Howard Taft

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair


- feud between Gifford Pinchot & Richard Ballinger after Ballinger sells 1mil acres Alaskan public land to JP Morgan

Richard Ballinger


- Secretary of the Interior under William Howard Taft

Gifford Pinchot

- chief forester

- leader of National Conservation Congress

Mann-Elkins Act


- allows ICC to set railroad rates

- places telephone companies under ICC supervision

- places telegraph companies under ICC supervision

1910 off-year elections

- Democrats recapture Congress

- leads to gridlock between Republican president & Democratic Congress

Progressive Party

- formed by dissatisfied branch of Republican Party

- runs Theo Roosevelt in 1912 elections

- later renamed Bull Moose Party

New Nationalism


- Roosevelt's platform 1912 election

- national approach to affairs w/ strong president

- efficiency in government

- protection of children, women, and workers

- for the executive office and large government

- for an interventionist & regulatory government

New Freedom


- Wilson's platform 1912 election

- for small government

- moralist

- for business competition & lassez-faire economics

1912 election

- 3 candidates:

> Theo Roosevelt (Bull Moose)

> William Howard Taft (Republican)

> Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)

16th Amendment


- levies federal income tax

17th Amendment


- allows direct election of US senators instead of state appointment

Underwood Tariff


- cuts duties

- levies graduated federal tax for the first time

Federal Reserve Act


- (re)establishes national bank

- reforms banking system

- issues stable currency

- controls short-term interest rates

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

- second, stronger anti-trust act

- outlaws unfair trade practices

Federal Trade Commission


- established to oversee business methods

Adamson Act


- creates 8hr workday for railroad companies

Federal Farm Loan Act


- increased credit for farmers

- precursor to farming subsidy system

Federal Workers' Compensation Act


- introduces workers' compensation at the federal level

Keating-Owen Act


- 1st US attempt to ban child labor

- declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court under influence of Oliver Wendell Holmes

Warehouse Act


- establishes sub-treasury system for farmers

Revenue Act


- increases income tax on the rich

1916 legislation

- Federal Farm Loan Act

- Adamson Act

- Federal Workers' Compensation Act

- Keating-Owen Act

- Warehouse Act

- Revenue Act